Lesson 13 Flashcards Preview

Beginner Spanish > Lesson 13 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lesson 13 Deck (108)

What is the preterite tense in Spanish?

The preterite is one of two past tenses in Spanish. It is associated with a single action that is terminated and complete, rather than an action that was ongoing for a period of time.


I studied with my cousins

Estudié con mis primos

I studied - estudié


Do you think that I studied last night? Because I didn't study

¿Piensas que estudié anoche? Porque no estudié

last night - anoche


Rodrigo, did you study with your girlfriend?

Rodrigo, ¿estudiaste con tu novia?

you studied - estudiaste


That is not true; María did not study with my sister. She studied with my cousin

Eso no es verdad; María no estudió con mi hermana. Estudió con mi primo

he/she studied - estudió


Since Raquel did not study yesterday, she is scared to take the test today

Como Raquel no estudió ayer, entonces tiene miedo de tomar el examen hoy

yesterday - ayer


What are you saying? We did study yesterday!

¿Qué dices? ¡Nosotros sí estudiamos ayer!

we studied - estudiamos


You (vosotros) did not study last night

Vosotros no estudiasteis anoche

you (vosotros) studied - estudiasteis


Maite and Ricardo studied for their art test

Maite y Ricardo estudiaron para su examen de arte

they, you (uds) studied - estudiaron


TO STUDY (Preterite Tense)

  • I studied
  • You studied
  • He/She studied
  • We studied
  • You studied
  • They studied

ESTUDIAR (Tiempo Pretérito)

  • Yo estudié
  • Tú estudiaste
  • Él/Ella/Ud estudió
  • Nosotros estudiamos
  • Vosotros estudiasteis
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds estudiaron


What are the endings of regular - ar verbs (such as estudiar) conjugated in the preterite?

Regular Preterite -ar endings

  • -é (yo)
  • -aste (tú)
  • -ó (él, ella, usted)
  • -amos (nosotros)
  • -asteis (vosotros)
  • -aron (ellos, ellas)


I did not learn anything this year. Did you?

No aprendí nada este año, ¿y tú?

I learned - aprendí. Note that is the regular preterite ending for both -er and -ir verbs in the first person singluar form (yo)


Miguel, you didn't learn anything in this class

Miguel, tú no aprendiste nada en esta clase

you learned - aprendiste


What did José learn from reading this book?

¿Qué aprendió José de leer este libro?

he/she learned - aprendió


Monica and I learned to drive yesterday

Monica y yo aprendimos a conducir ayer

we learned - aprendimos


Did you (vosotros) learn how to cook at home?

¿Aprendisteis a cocinar en casa?

you (vosotros) learned - aprendisteis


They say that they didn't learn anything this year

Dicen que no aprendieron nada este año

they learned - aprendieron


TO LEARN (Preterite Tense)

  • I learned
  • You learned
  • He/She learned
  • We learned
  • You learned
  • They learned

APRENDER (Tiempo pretérito)

  • Yo aprendí
  • Tú aprendiste
  • Él/Ella/Ud aprendió
  • Nosotros aprendimos
  • Vosotros aprendisteis
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds aprendieron


What are the endings of regular - er and -ir verbs (such as aprender) conjugated in the preterite?

Regular Preterite -er and -ir endings

  • -í (yo)
  • -iste (tú)
  • -ió (él, ella, usted)
  • -imos (nosotros)
  • -isteis (vosotros)
  • -ieron (ellos, ellas)


This is the last dessert that we have

Este es el último postre que tenemos

last - último. Note that último can be used as both an adjective and as an adverb


Did you learn anything last year?

¿Aprendiste algo el año pasado?

last year - el año pasado. Note that that you are literally saying "the year past". This would apply whenever you are talking about time that has gone by, such as a year, a month, or a week: el año pasado, el mes pasado, or la semana pasada


I lived in Mexico last year

Yo viví en México el año pasado

I lived - viví. Note that vivir follows a regular -ir ending pattern of conjugation in the preterite


Marcos, did you live in a big house?

Marcos, ¿viviste en una casa grande?

you lived - viviste


Our professor lived in this building right here

Nuestro profesor vivió en este edificio aquí

he/she lived - vivió


We never lived in Spain; we lived in Mexico

Nunca vivimos en España; vivimos en México

we lived - vivimos


Alejandro says that you (vosotros) lived with your grandmother

Alejandro dice que vosotros vivisteis con vuestra abuela

you (vosotros) lived - vivisteis


Did Pepe, Esperanza, and Xavier live there?

¿Vivieron allí Pepe, Esperanza y Xavier?

they lived - vivieron


TO LIVE (Preterite Tense)

  • I lived
  • You lived
  • He/She lived
  • We lived
  • You lived
  • They lived

VIVIR (Tiempo Pretérito)

  • Yo viví
  • Tú viviste
  • Él/Ella/Ud vivió
  • Nosotros vivimos
  • Vosotros vivisteis
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds vivieron

Remember that the conjugation of regular -ir verbs in the preterite is the same as for -er verbs


Maricarmen never cleaned the kitchen

Maricarmen nunca limpió la cocina

to clean - limpiar


We watched a movie last night

Vimos una película anoche

movie - la película


The movie ended at midnight

La película terminó a medianoche

to end - terminar


I already sent the letter

Ya mandé la carta

to send, to command - mandar.  Remember that we can use both enviar and mandar to mean "to send"


You never sent the email

Nunca mandaste el correo electrónico

email - el correo electrónico. Note that correo also means regular "mail", and that some countries simply use the English word "email" in their Spanish conversation


Did Jaime receive the email?

¿Recibió Jaime el correo electrónico?

Note that Spanish does not have an equivalent helping verb to the English word "Did". Instead, we simply begin the question with the conjugated verb, and place the subject directly after it


My sister's baby is going to be born in three days

El bebé de mi hermana va a nacer en tres días

to be born - nacer


My grandmother was born ninety-nine years ago

Mi abuela nació hace noventa y nueve años

(length of time) ago - hace (medida de tiempo)


And the man came out suddenly

Y el hombre salió de repente

suddenly - de repente


The female students are over here with us

Las estudiantes están acá con nosotros

over here - acá


What are the uses of aquí, acá, allí, and allá?

  • aquí, acá --> "here". The variation in meaning depends on the country
  • allí --> "there" and means that something is less near
  • allá --> "over there" and means that something is farther


I do not want that orange; I want that one that is way over there

No quiero esa naranja; quiero aquella que está allá

that one - aquel. Note that aquel expresses that the object is far away. Also note that the plural for aquel is aquellos


What is the meaning of este, esta, esto and their respective plural forms?

  • este --> masculine for "this"; estos--> masculine plural for "these" 
  • esta --> feminine for "this"; estas --> feminine plural for "these"
  • esto --> gender neutral for "this" and is never followed by a noun
  • éste --> masculine for "this one"; éstos --> masculine plural for "these ones".  They are never followed by a noun 
  • ésta --> feminine for "this one"; éstas --> feminine plural for "these ones". They are never followed by a noun


What is the meaning of ese, esa, eso and their respective plural forms?

  • ese --> masculine for "that"; esos --> masculine plural for "those"
  • esa --> feminine for "that" ; esas --> feminine plural for "those"
  • eso --> gender neutral for "that" and is never followed by a noun


What is the meaning of aquel, aquella, aquello and their respective plural forms?

  • aquel --> masculine for "that one over there"; aquellos --> masculine plural for "those over there"
  • aquella --> feminine for "that one over there"; aquellas --> feminine plural for "those over there"
  • aquello --> gender neutral for "that over there" and is never followed by a noun


I was a good student

Yo fui un buen estudiante

I was - fui. Note that fui is the irregular preterite form of ser ("to be") in the first person singular (yo). Also note that fui indicates that at one time you were a good student. If you mean to say that you "used to be" a good student during a protracted amount of time, you would use the imperfect tense, which we will learn later.


You were Marta's friend, but you're not her friend anymore

Fuiste amigo de Marta, pero ahora ya no eres su amigo

you were - fuiste


Pamela was an art teacher

Pamela fue maestra de arte

he/she was - fue


Jaime and I were best friends

Jaime y yo fuimos mejores amigos

we were - fuimos


You (vosotras) were beautiful

Vosotras fuisteis guapas

you (vosotros/as) were - fuisteis


TO BE (ser, Preterite Tense)

  • I was
  • You were
  • He/She was
  • We were
  • You were
  • They were

SER (Tiempo Pretérito)

  • Yo fui
  • fuiste
  • Él/Ella/Ud fue
  • Nosotros fuimos
  • Vosotros fuisteis
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds fueron

Note that the conjugations for ser in the preterite tense are irregular and are conjugated the same as they are for ir


TO GO (Preterite Tense)

  • I went
  • You went
  • He/She went
  • We went
  • You went
  • They went

IR (Tiempo Pretérito) 

  • Yo fui
  • fuiste
  • Él/Ella/Ud fue
  • Nosotros fuimos
  • Vosotros fuisteis
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds fueron

Remember that the conjugations for ir in the preterite tense are irregular and are the same as they are for ser


I went to the restaurant with my aunt and uncle

Fui al restaurante con mis tíos

I went - fui. Note that the irregular preterite forms of ir are exactly the same as they are for ser


José, did you go to school yesterday?

José, ¿fuiste a la escuela ayer?

you went - fuiste


Paloma did not go to the beach last week

Paloma no fue a la playa la semana pasada

he/she went - fue


Our grandmother is sick; therefore we didn't go to her house on Sunday

Nuestra abuela está enferma, entonces no fuimos a su casa el domingo

we went - fuimos


Did you (vosotros) go to art class at noon?

¿Fuisteis a la clase de arte a mediodía?

you (vosotros) went - fuisteis


They didn't go to swim; they went to eat

Ellos no fueron a nadar; fueron a comer

they went - fueron


They say she left with Marcos. I don't believe it

Dicen que se fue con Marcos. No lo creo yo

While in English, placing spoken emphasis on the subject ("I don't believe it") is enough to convey semantic emphasis, in Spanish we emphasize the subject by placing it after the verb


I was in Pepe's house all afternoon

Estuve en casa de Pepe toda la tarde

I was - estuve. Note that in the preterite tense, estar follows an irregular conjugation pattern


Were you in the kitchen? Because someone cooked my chicken

¿Estuviste en la cocina? Porque alguién cocinó mi pollo

you were - estuviste


Fernanda was not with Marcos; she was with Maite

Fernanda no estuvo con Marcos; estuvo con Maite

he/she was - estuvo


Mauricio walked from here up to over there

Mauricio caminó desde aquí hasta allá

until, to, up to - hasta


They went up to the Atlantic coast

Fueron hasta la costa del Atlántico

coast - la costa


Thanks for coming Mauricio.  I'll see you later!

Gracias por venir Mauricio, y ¡hasta luego!

see you later - hasta luego. This literally means "until later"


Valentina and her mom are never in agreement

Valentina y su mamá nunca están de acuerdo

in agreement - de acuerdo


Alright mom, I will come home early

De acuerdo mamá, voy a volver a casa temprano OR Está bien mamá . . .

alright - está bien, de acuerdo


Alright, I will go with you to Marta's house on Friday night. See you soon!

Está bien, voy a ir contigo a la casa de Marta el viernes por la noche. ¡Hasta pronto!

see you soon - hasta pronto


See you tomorrow Carlos!

¡Hasta mañana Carlos!

see you tomorrow - hasta mañana


Even the chef is hungry

Hasta el cocinero tiene hambre

Note that the word hasta loosely translates to the English word "even" in this case. Think of it as, "[Everyone], up to the chef, is hungry"


We were with Ana from five in the afternoon until dawn. What a crazy night!

Estuvimos con Ana desde las cinco de la tarde hasta la madrugada. ¡Qué noche tan loca!

we were - estuvimos


TO BE (estar, Preterite)

  • I was
  • You were
  • He/She was
  • We were
  • You were
  • They were

ESTAR (Tiempo Pretérito)

  • Yo estuve
  • Tú estuviste
  • Él/Ella/Ud estuvo
  • Nosotros estuvimos
  • Vosotros estuvisteis
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds estuvieron

Remember that the conjugations for estar in the preterite tense are irregular


I didn't do that, it was Miguel

Yo no hice eso, fue Miguel

I did/made - hice. Note that hice is the irregular preterite form of hacer in the first person singular. All preterite forms of hacer are irregular


You did all of this for your girlfriend? You are such a good boyfriend!

¿Hiciste todo esto para tu novia? ¡Eres un novio tan bueno!


you did/made - hiciste


Linda did not do her homework, and now she wants to go out. What are we going to do with her?

Linda no hizo su tarea y ahora quiere salir. ¿Qué vamos a hacer con ella?

he/she did/made - hizo


We didn't make anything for dinner and now we are very hungry

No hicimos nada de cenar y ahora tenemos mucha hambre

we did/made - hicimos


Marcos is not Silvia's boyfriend anymore

Marcos ya no es novio de Silvia

not anymore - ya no


What did you (vosotros) do? I can't deal with you anymore!

¿Qué hicisteis? ¡Ya no puedo más con vosotros!

you (vosotros) did/made - hicisteis


They did their homework until ten at night, but they finished.

Hicieron su tarea hasta las diez de la noche, pero ya terminaron

they did/made - hicieron


TO DO/MAKE (Preterite)

  • I made
  • You made
  • He/She made
  • We made
  • You made
  • They made

Hacer (Tiempo Pretérito)

  • Yo hice
  • hiciste
  • Él/Ella/Ud hizo
  • Nosotros hicimos
  • Vosotros hicisteis
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds hicieron

Remember that the conjugations for hacer in the preterite tense are irregular


I had a dream last night

Tuve un sueño anoche

I had - tuve. Note that tuve is the irregular preterite form of tener in the first person singular. All the preterite forms of tener are irregular


Did you have to go to the beach with your family this weekend?

¿Tuviste que ir a la playa con tu familia este fín de semana?

you had (to) - tuviste (que)


Do you know if Margarita had to read all of those books for today?

¿Sabes si Margarita tuvo que leer todos esos libros para hoy?

he/she had (to) - tuvo (que)


This time, we only had two hours to finish the exam

Esta vez sólo tuvimos dos horas para terminar el examen

we had - tuvimos


Do you know if Mariana finished making lunch?

¿Sabes si Mariana ya terminó de hacer el almuerzo?

to finish - terminar de. Note that when terminar goes before the verb, you must add de after the verb, terminar + de + infinitive


I know that Esperanza and Raquel had to do a lot of things, but I think that they already finished

Sé que Esperanza y Raquel tuvieron que hacer muchas cosas, pero creo que ya terminaron

they had - tuvieron


TO HAVE (Preterite Tense)

  • I had
  • You had
  • He/She had
  • We had
  • You had
  • They had

TENER (Tiempo Pretérito)

  • Yo tuve
  • tuviste
  • Él/Ella/Ud tuvo
  • Nosotros tuvimos
  • Vosotros tuvisteis
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds tuvieron

Remember that the conjugations for tener in the preterite tense are irregular


I never knew that she went out at five

Nunca supe que ella salió a las cinco

I knew - supe. Note that supe is the irregular preterite form of saber in the first person singular. All preterite forms of saber are irregular


You didn't know (preterite) that Mariana was here yesterday?

¿No supiste que Mariana estuvo aquí ayer?

you knew - supiste


We are not going to enter because I am afraid of the house

No vamos a entrar porque tengo miedo de la casa

to enter - entrar


We didn't know how to get to your house yesterday

Ayer no supimos como llegar a tu casa

we knew - supimos


Did you (vosotros) know how to cook the meat?

¿Supisteis como cocinar la carne?

you (vosotros) knew - supisteis


Maricarmen and Eduardo never knew that I know your brother

Maricarmen y Eduardo nunca supieron que yo conozco a tu hermano

they knew - supieron


TO KNOW (Preterite)

  • I knew
  • You knew
  • He/She knew
  • We knew
  • You knew
  • They knew

SABER (Tiempo Pretérito)

  • Yo supe
  • supiste
  • Él/Ella/Ud supo
  • Nosotros supimos
  • Vosotros supisteis
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds supieron

Remember that the conjugations for saber in the preterite tense are irregular


Poor Miguel, he never knew why Sandra didn't want to be his girlfriend

Pobre Miguel, nunca supo por qué Sandra no quiso ser su novia

poor (unfortunate) - pobre.  If pobre is used before the noun, it means "unfortunate". If used after the noun, it means "without money"


Beautiful people are not always very interesting

La gente bella no siempre es muy interesante

people - la gente. Note that in Spanish, the word gente is treated like a singular noun, and verbs are conjugated accordingly


The poor people from here don't have money to buy food

La gente pobre de aquí no tiene dinero para comprar comida

poor (without money) - pobre.  If pobre is used before the noun, it means "unfortunate". If used after the noun, it means "without money"


I can't believe that you spent all of your money on me

No puedo creer que gastaste todo tu dinero en mí

to spend (money) - gastar


I spent three hours at the hospital

Pasé tres horas en el hospital

to spend (time) - pasar


There is so much poverty in the world

Hay tanta pobreza en el mundo

poverty - la pobreza


In this world there are a lot of poor people

En este mundo hay mucha gente pobre

world - el mundo


Those people are angry because of so much poverty

Esas personas están enojadas a causa de tanta pobreza

people (individuals) - las personas (f). The word personas is used instead of gente when emphasizing their individualilty. Gente is used more to refer to collective groups


Sofía calls her boyfriend every day

Sofía llama a su novio todos los días

to call - llamar


I couldn't go out because I didn't do my homework

No pude salir porque no hice mi tarea

I could - pude. Note that pude is the preterite of poder and that poder can also be translated as "to be able to"


Were you able to go to the museum yesterday?

¿Pudiste ir al museo ayer?

you could - pudiste


Do you (uds) know if María was able to go to the beach with Alejandro?

¿Saben si María pudo ir a la playa con Alejandro?

he/she could - pudo


We couldn't call on time. We are sorry

No pudimos llamar a tiempo. Lo sentimos

we could - pudimos


You (vosotros) were not able to go, right?

Vosotros no pudisteis ir, ¿verdad?

you (vosotros) could - pudisteis


They were not able to travel to Spain, and now they are sad

Ellos no pudieron viajar a España, y ahora están tristes

they could - pudieron


TO BE ABLE TO (Preterite)

  • I could
  • You could
  • He/She could
  • We could
  • You could
  • They could

PODER (Tiempo Pretérito)

  • Yo pude
  • pudiste
  • Él/Ella/Ud pudo
  • Nosotros pudimos
  • Vosotros pudisteis
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds pudieron

Remember that the conjugations for poder in the preterite tense are irregular