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Flashcards in Lesson 14 Deck (121)

What is a direct object?

A direct object (D.O.) is something or someone that certain verbs (transitive verbs) act upon:

  • I read a book. Q: What did I read?  DO: a book
  • I drove a carQ: What did I drive?  DO: a car
  • I will call AnaQ: Who will I call?      DO: Ana


What is a tonic or disjunctive pronoun?

A tonic or disjunctive pronoun is a stressed form of a personal pronoun that is only used in certain contexts. In Spanish, they are:

  • a mí
  • a ti
  • a él/ella/ud
  • a nosotros
  • a vosotros
  • a ellos/ellas/uds


Marcos helps me

Marcos me ayuda

me - me. Note that we can use the direct-object pronoun me to replace the disjunctive pronoun a mí. Direct object pronouns always appear before the conjugated verb


Guillermo calls you every day

Guillermo te llama todos los días

you - te. Note that this direct-object pronoun replaces the disjunctive pronoun a ti (i.e. Guillermo te llama a ti)


I don't see him at the back of the restaurant

No lo veo al fondo del restaurante

him, it, you (Ud) - lo. Note that this direct-object pronoun replaces masculine nouns such as:

  • the phrases a él and a usted
  • a masculine noun (e.g. el libro)
  • someone's name (e.g. a Marcos)


I didn't receive the letter. I didn't receive it

No recibí la carta. No la recibí

her, it, you (formal, feminine) - la. Note that this direct-object pronoun replaces feminine nouns such as:

  • the phrases a ella and a usted
  • a feminine noun (e.g. la carta), or
  • a person (e.g. María)


They helped us buy a house

Ellos nos ayudaron a comprar una casa

us - nos. Note that this direct-object pronoun replaces the disjunctive pronoun a nosotros(as).  Also note that the direct-object pronoun is placed between the subject and the verb


I called you (vosotros) this morning

Os llamé esta mañana

you (vosotros) - os. Note that this direct-object pronoun replaces the disjunctive pronoun a vosotros(as)


I sold the books. I sold them

Vendí los libros. Los vendí

them, you (plural) - los. Note that this direct-object pronoun replaces the disjunctive pronouns a ellos and a ustedes, or replaces a plural masculine noun (e.g. los libros), or replaces several names (e.g. Marcos y María)


I helped them (fem)

Yo las ayudé

them (fem), you (plural, fem) - las. Note that this direct-object pronoun replaces the phrases a ellas and a ustedes, or replaces a plural feminine noun (e.g. las casas), or replaces several feminine names (e.g. María y Carla)


We met them (fem) at the party

Nosotros las conocimos en la fiesta

party - la fiesta. Note that the direct-object pronoun (e.g. las) usually goes between the subject and the verb


We are going to see him soon

Vamos a verlo pronto

Note that when a full verb phrase is used, the direct-object pronoun may be attached at the end of the infinitive. It is also acceptable to say Nosotros lo vamos a ver


We saw him at the movie theater

Lo vimos en el cine

movie theater - el cine


Pancho does not have very good sight, therefore he doesn't see me

Pancho no tiene muy buena vista, por eso no me ve

sight - la vista. Note that when using a negation, the direct-object pronoun goes in between no and the verb (e.g. no me ve)


Direct-Object Pronouns

  • me
  • you
  • him/her
  • us
  • you
  • them

Pronombres de Objeto Directo

  • me (yo)
  • te (tú)
  • lo, la (él/ella/ud)
  • nos (nosotros)
  • os (vosotros)
  • los, las (ellos/ellas/uds)


What is an indirect object?

An indirect object (I.O.) is a noun or pronoun for which the verb's actions are intended and answers the questions "to whom" and "for whom":

  • I make Jaime lunch.  IO: for Jaime  DO: lunch
  • I sent Marta a letterIO: to Marta  DO: a letter


Indirect-Object Pronouns

  • to me
  • to you
  • to him/her
  • to us
  • to you 
  • to them

Pronombres de Objeto Indirecto

  • me (yo)
  • te (tú)
  • le (él/ella/ud)
  • nos (nosotros)
  • os (vosotros)
  • les (ellos/ellas/uds)


He bought me these books.

He bought me them.

Él me compró estos libros.

Él me los compró.

to me - me. Note that the indirect-object pronoun goes before the direct-object pronoun


Rosa bought you these apples.

She bought you them

Rosa te compró estas manzanas.

Te las compró

to you - te


We bought these chairs for Rafael.

We bought these chairs for him.

We bought them for him

Nosotros compramos estas sillas para Rafael.

Nosotros le compramos estas sillas.

Nosotros se las compramos

to him, to her, to you (ud) - le. Note that when the indirect object pronoun le is followed by the direct-object pronouns lo, la, los or las, you must change le to se


I did not buy this desk for my son.

I did not buy him this desk.

I did not buy it for him

No compré este escritorio para mi hijo.

No le compré este escritorio.

No se lo compré

desk - el escritorio


They did not send us the letters.

They never sent them to us

Ellos no nos enviaron las cartas.

Nunca nos las enviaron

to us - nos


I didn't buy these pens for Marcos and Pamela

I didn't buy these pens for them

I didn't buy them for them

No compré estas plumas para Marcos y Pamela

No les compré estas plumas

No se las compré

to them, to you (plural) - les


They sent you (vosotros) a letter.

They sent it to you (vosotros)

Ellos os enviaron una carta.

Os la enviaron

to you (vosotros) - os


TO GIVE (Preterite)

  • I gave
  • You gave
  • He/She gave
  • We gave
  • You gave
  • They gave

DAR (Tiempo Pretérito)

  • Yo di
  • Tú diste
  • Él/Ella/Ud dio
  • Nosotros dimos
  • Vosotros disteis
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds dieron 

Remember that the conjugations for dar in the preterite tense are irregular


I gave the book to Miguel

Le di el libro a Miguel

Note that we repeat the indirect object pronoun le despite the fact that we still say a Miguel. The indirect object pronoun is always used whether or not the actual object is stated


I bought the book from Miguel

Le compré el libro a Miguel

Note that the word comprar, as well as a few similar words (e.g. robar, quitar), often uses the preposition a to denote the person from whom the item is being purchased, rather than using de. Confusingly, this sentence could also mean that you are buying the book "for" Miguel, depending on context. 


The sad part is that he never knew his grandfather

Lo triste es que nunca conoció a su abuelo

Note that the word lo is used as a neuter article to indicate "the ___ part." Another common example is lo bueno ("the good part")


The part about eating made me hungry

Lo de comer me dio hambre

the part about - lo de.  Note that the phrase lo de is used to denote "the part about", or "all this business about"


He doesn't understand how handsome he is

Él no entiende lo guapo que es

how (to express degree) - lo. Note that the use of the neuter lo here has nothing to do with gender. You would also say Ella no entiende lo guapa que es.


She tells me she is American, but I don't believe her

Me dice que es americana, pero no le creo

to tell - decir. Note that the word decir means "to say" when there is no indirect object (such as me), but "to tell" when there is an indirect object


TO SAY/TELL (Preterite)

  • I said
  • You said
  • He/She said
  • We said
  • You said
  • They said 

DECIR (Tiempo Pretérito)

  • Yo dije
  • dijiste
  • Él/Ella/Ud dijo
  • Nosotros dijimos
  • Vosotros dijisteis
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds dijeron 


Did they tell you where the bathroom is?

¿Te dijeron dónde está el baño?

they said/told - dijeron. Note that decir is irregular in the preterite tense


I don't care if you come or not

(A mí) no me importa si vienes o no

I care - me importa. (Literally "It is important to me.") Note that this verb works similarly to verbs like gustar, because the object of "care" in English becomes the subject of the Spanish importar


Apparently, she doesn´t care

Por lo visto, (a ella) no le importa 

apparently - por lo visto. Literally, por lo visto translates to "by that which is seen"


What is a reflexive verb in Spanish?

Verbs that reflect back to the subject doing the action. Although these verbs can often be used in a non-reflexive context, they are most generally used to show that the noun is acting on itself and are very commonly used among Spanish-speakers


What are the reflexive pronouns in Spanish?

Pronombres Reflexivos

  • me (yo)= myself
  • te (tú)= yourself
  • se (él/ella/ud)= himself, herself, yourself
  • nos (nosotros)= ourselves
  • os (vosotros)= yourselves 
  • se (ellos/ellas/uds)=  themselves, yourselves


I shave my grandfather

Yo afeito a mi abuelo

to shave - afeitar


I help my grandfather shave himself

Yo le ayudo a mi abuelo a afeitarse

to shave oneself - afeitarse. Note that since my grandfather is both the shaver and the recipient of the shaving, we use the reflexive pronoun se


My aunt bathes her baby

Mi tía baña a su bébé

to bathe - bañar


We bathe (ourselves) every day

Nosotros nos bañamos todos los días

to bathe oneself - bañarse. Note that this sentence construction is actually indistinguishable from "we bathe each other". We can usually know which connotation is meant by context!


I am going to approach the handsome man

Voy a acercarme al hombre guapo

to approach - acercarse a


I could never get used to the cold

Nunca pude acostumbrarme al frío

to get used to - acostumbrarse a


Her baby looks so much like her

Su bébé se parece tanto a ella

to look like - parecer(se) a


I fell asleep at 8:00

Me dormí a las 8:00

to fall asleep - dormirse. Note that "to fall asleep" is dormirse, while "to sleep" is simply dormir


Paulo and Luisa went to bed at eight forty-five

Paulo y Luisa se acostaron a las nueve menos cuarto

to lie down, to go to bed - acostarse


No, my grandpa doesn't have hair anymore

No, mi abuelo ya no tiene cabello

hair - el cabello, el pelo. Note that the use of cabello or pelo depends on the region


Before eating, we have to buy food and cook it

Antes de comer, tenemos que comprar la comida y cocinarla

before - antes (de)


What is the difference between the words  and se?

  • is the conjugation of saber in the first person singular (yo sé = "I know")
  • se is the reflexive pronoun for the third person singular (él, ella, ud) or plural (ellos/ellas/uds)


What is the difference between the words and te?

  • means "tea"
  • te is the reflexive pronoun for the second person singular ()


We brush our hair before going to bed

Nos cepillamos el cabello antes de acostarnos

to brush oneself - cepillarse. Remember that body parts are usually not possessive, so we do not say nuestro cabello. The possession is shown by the reflexive pronoun nos


They comb themselves every day

Ellos se peinan todos los días

to comb onself - peinarse. Note that peinarse is often used to mean "to brush", but only refers to hair


After bathing, I am going to shave

Después de bañarme, yo me voy a afeitar OR Después de bañarme, yo voy a afeitarme

after - después (de). Note that with a composite verb like voy a + infinitive, you can place the reflexive pronoun in between the subject and the conjugated verb


We are going to say goodbye at the restaurant

Vamos a despedirnos en el restaurante

to say goodbye - despedirse. Notice that despedir means "to fire" while despedirse means "to say goodbye". Although many verbs have a similar meaning to their reflexive counterparts, others have rather different meanings


The noise woke me up

El ruido me despertó

to wake (someone) up - despertar


Jaime wakes up early on Mondays

Jaime se despierta temprano los lunes

to wake (oneself) up - despertarse


We had so much fun at your party last weekend!

¡Nos divertimos tanto en tu fiesta el fin de semana pasado!

to have fun, to enjoy oneself - divertirse


We were unable to lift that table

No pudimos levantar esa mesa

to lift - levantar


We were unable to get up this morning because we went to bed very late last night

No pudimos levantarnos esta mañana porque nos acostamos muy tarde anoche

to get up - levantarse. Note that levantarse means to physically get up (e.g., out of bed), while despertarse means "to wake up"


I washed my car yesterday

Ayer lavé mi carro

to wash - lavar


Pablo and Mariana, did you wash your hands already?

Pablo y Mariana, ¿ya se lavaron las manos?

to wash oneself - lavarse


My friends call me Memo, but my name is Guillermo

Mis amigos me llaman Memo, pero mi nombre es Guillermo

to be called - llamarse. Remember that the usual way of saying "My name is __" is Me llamo ___, or "I call myself ___"


You need to hurry up because I'm in a hurry

Tienes que apurarte porque tengo prisa

to hurry up - apurarse; apresurarse


Sandra never puts on makeup, and she is very pretty anyway

Sandra nunca se maquilla, y es muy bonita de todos modos

to put on makeup - maquillarse


My mom worries about me every day

Mi mamá se preocupa por mí todos los días

to worry about - preocuparse por


My niece is worried

Mi sobrina está preocupada

worried - preocupado


José's aunts complain about his girlfriend because she is not very nice

Las tías de José se quejan de su novia porque no es muy simpática

to complain about - quejarse de


You are always buying yourself clothes

Siempre estás comprándote ropa

clothes - la ropa. Note that you can add the reflexive pronoun to the end of a present participle (-ando or -iendo), but you must put an accent mark on the appropriate syllable to maintain the right inflection


TO PUT (Preterite Tense)

  • I put
  • You put
  • He/She put
  • We put
  • You put
  • They put

PONER (Tiempo Pretérito)

  • Yo puse
  • pusiste
  • Él/Ella/Ud puso
  • Nosotros pusimos
  • Vosotros pusisteis
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds pusieron


I put the shoes in my room before going to bed last night

Puse los zapatos en mi cuarto antes de acostarme anoche

I put (preterite) - puse.  Note that this is an irregular preterite conjugation of the verb poner


Marcos doesn't want to put on those clothes

Marcos no quiere ponerse esa ropa

to put on, to wear - ponerse. Remember that the non-reflexive counterpart of ponerse is poner "to put, to place"


She became red due to the embarrassment

Se puso roja de vergüenza

to become (+ adj) - ponerse, hacerse


Valentina became furious when she couldn't go out

Valentina se puso furiosa cuando no pudo salir

furious - furioso


I want to become a doctor

Quiero llegar a ser médico

to become (through effort) - llegar a ser. This phrase is used when referring to what someone wants to become or what someone became (e.g. profession, a superlative)


I don't want to sit there; I want to sit over there

No quiero sentarme allí; quiero sentarme allá

to sit (down) - sentarse


She looks very beautiful with that dress on

Ella se ve muy guapa con ese vestido puesto

to look (to be seen as)- verse. Note that this is the reflexive form of the verb ver ("to see")


They gave me the key

Ellos me dieron la llave

key - la llave


Fernanda is only three years old, and she already dresses herself on her own

Fernanda sólo tiene tres añitos y ya se viste sola

to dress oneself - vestirse. Note that vestir changes the -e- to -i- in most present tense conjugations


I have sort of a big mouth, right?

Tengo la boca un poco grande, ¿verdad?

mouth - la boca. Remember that body parts and articles of clothing are denoted by articles rather than the possessive (e.g. la boca, not mi boca)


I have very long arms, don’t you think?

Tengo los brazos muy largos, ¿no crees?

arm - el brazo


He slept late today

Él durmió tarde hoy

he/she/it slept (preterite)- durmió. Note that dormir changes its stem from -o- to -u- in some forms of the preterite, making it slightly irregular


My arm fell asleep. Will you help me move it?

Se me durmió el brazo. ¿Me ayudas a moverlo?

Note that the construction Se me durmió demonstrates a lack of agency or intention by the subject of the sentence and is a construction that is used very often in Spanish


Rosa always loses her keys

A Rosa siempre se le pierden las llaves

to lose - perder. Note the lack of agency on the part of the subject. It is as though "the keys always lose themselves from her", in order to shift responsibility away from Rosa


Does your arm hurt?

¿Te duele el brazo?

to hurt - doler. Note that doler is part of the group of irregular verbs whose stem changes from -o- to -ue- in the present tense


I will go down soon, I just need to do some things first

Bajo pronto, sólo tengo que hacer unas cosas primero

to go down - bajar


I am worried because little Mariana has a high fever

Estoy preocupada porque Marianita tiene una fiebre alta

fever - la fiebre


My fever went down

Se me bajó la fiebre

Note that we use the definite article la to denote "my" fever, and we use the reflexive pronoun me to denote that I was the one affected. Mi fiebre ha bajado would sound too direct and awkward


Jimena married Eduardo yesterday

Jimena se casó ayer con Eduardo

to marry - casarse con


He is the priest that married my aunt and uncle

Ése es el cura que casó a mis tíos

priest - el cura, el sacerdote, el padre. Note that ése has an accent because it refers to a person who you've been talking about, but whose name you have omitted (e.g. ése es mi primo vs. quiero ese lápiz)


Do you know a cure for the fever?

¿Conoces una cura para la fiebre?

cure - la cura. Do not confuse this with el cura ("priest")


I broke my ankle last Tuesday

Se me rompió el tobillo el martes pasado

ankle - el tobillo. Again, rather than saying Me rompí el tobillo, we use indirect object pronouns to clarify that this was not intentional


My head hurts; I don't know what I did last night

Me duele la cabeza; no sé qué hice anoche

head - la cabeza


When I went to the supermarket, I saw a girl with a very pretty face

Cuando fui al supermercado, vi a una niña con una cara muy bonita

face - la cara


David has a very big neck, right?

David tiene un cuello muy grande, ¿verdad?

neck - el cuello


We have very small fingers

Tenemos los dedos muy pequeños

finger - el dedo


I didn't bite you! It was Jorge!

¡No te mordí! ¡Fue Jorge!

to bite - morder


She bites with her teeth

Ella muerde con los dientes

tooth - el diente


My forehead gets hot when I have a fever

Mi frente se pone caliente cuando tengo fiebre

forehead - la frente. Do not confuse this with el frente, which means "a (military) front"


Look at her lips!

¡Mira sus labios!

lip - el labio


The little boy always sticks out his tongue

El niñito siempre saca la lengua

tongue - la lengua.  Also note that to say "to stick out (one's tongue)" you must use sacar, which means "to take out" in other contexts


The baby has little chubby cheeks

El bebé tiene mejillitas gorditas

cheek - la mejilla, el cachete. Although mejilla is a more standard way of saying "cheek", certain regions say cachete


I can't believe that I forgot about you

No puedo creer que me olvidé de ti

to forget - olvidarse de


What are you all laughing about?

¿De qué se están riendo?

to laugh about - reírse de. Note the irregular form of the present participle riendo


Why are you smiling so much?

¿Porqué estás sonriendo tanto?

to smile - sonreír. Note that sonreír has a similar present participle to reirse ("to laugh"), but it is not reflexive


She has a pretty smile

Ella tiene una sonrisa bonita

smile - la sonrisa


We hurt ourselves yesterday, and now we can't walk

Nos lastimamos ayer, y ahora no podemos caminar

to hurt oneself, to get injured - lastimarse


It is very important to me

Es muy importante para mí

important - importante. Remember that we could have also said Me importa mucho


The teacher got angry with me

El maestro se enojó conmigo

to get angry (with) - enojarse (con), enfadarse (con)


When I get angry, I count from one to ten

Cuando me enojo, cuento de uno a diez

to count - contar.  Note that contar undergoes an -o- to -ue- stem change in the present tense, like the verb doler


Can I count on you to help me buy clothes for my boyfriend?

¿Puedo contar contigo para ayudarme a comprarle ropa a mi novio?

to count on - contar con


That bag is very big

Esa bolsa es muy grande

(hand) bag - la bolsa (de mano) , el bolso


She put all the food in the bag

Ella metió toda la comida en la bolsa

to put in - meter en


Marcos has a big nose

Marcos tiene una nariz grande

nose - la nariz


I don't believe you that Victor broke his friend's nose, because he never picks a fight with anyone

No te creo que Victor le rompió la nariz a su amigo, porque él nunca se mete con nadie

to pick a fight with - meterse con. Note that this literally means "to put oneself in with"


Juan hurt his wrist last week

Juan se lastimó la muñeca la semana pasada

wrist - la muñeca.  Note that muñeca also means "doll"


Carmen and Pablo's ears hurt

A Carmen y a Pablo les duelen las orejas

ear - la oreja


Who hurt their leg?

¿Quién se lastimó la pierna?

leg - la pierna


Do you remember my cousin Maria José? She's the one who is going to marry Rodrigo

¿Te acuerdas de mi prima Maria José? Es la que va a casarse con Rodrigo

to remember - acordarse de. For a non-reflexive alternative, you may also use the synonym recordar


You (Uds) always make fun of little Andrés. It is not very nice

Ustedes siempre se burlan de Andresito. No es muy simpático

to make fun of - burlarse de


What time did you (Uds) leave the party?

¿A qué hora se fueron de la fiesta?

to leave - irse. Note that by simply making the verb ir ("to go") reflexive, we transform the verb to mean "to leave"


Whose leg hurts?

¿A quién le duele la pierna?

whose - ¿a quién? Remember that ¿de quién? is still used to ask "whose" when talking about possession (e.g. "Whose book is this?"). Also note the difference between doler "to hurt" and lastimarse "to get hurt"