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Flashcards in Lesson 19 Deck (71)

What is a past participle?

The past participle is a verb form that is essential to the conjugation of compound tenses. Past participles are also often used as adjectives or for the passive voice. In English, past participles end in "-ed" or "-en": "I've already cooked - Ya he cocinado. "I've already eaten" - Ya he comido.



How do you form a past participle?

The past participle for regular verbs is formed by adding -ado to the stem of -ar verbs or -ido to the stem of -er or -ir verbs.



Can past participles be used as adjectives?

Yes, past participles are often used as adjectives. When they do, they agree in number and gender: "The girls are tired" --> Las niñas están cansadas.



What is the present perfect tense in Spanish?

The present perfect tense is constructed by using the auxiliary verb haber (have) with the past participle of the primary verb:

  • An immediate past: "She hasn't eaten yet" --> Todavía no ha comido
  • Information independent of time: "I haven't gone out with Jorge" --> No he salido con Jorge
  • A past inhabited by the speaker: "Recently, I've been very sad" --> Recientemente he estado muy triste


I haven't eaten yet

Todavía no he comido

I have (present perfect) - yo he. Notice that we already learned the impersonal conjugation of haber in the third person (hay--> there is, there are). When haber is used as an auxiliary verb, as it is used here, it can be conjugated for every person


I've canceled the trip

He cancelado el viaje

canceled - cancelado. This is the past participle of the verb cancelar. Add -ado to the stem of the verb.


You haven't done your homework

No has hecho tu tarea

you have (present perfect) - tú has


Repeat what you have learned

Repite lo que has aprendido

learned - aprendido. This is the past participle of the verb aprender. Add -ido to the stem of the verb.


Monica has been happy lately

Monica ha estado contenta últimamente

he/she has (present perfect) - él/ella/ud ha


She's lived in 12 countries

Ella ha vivido en doce países

lived - vivido (-ir past participle)


Eduardo, Miguel and I have not gone out yet

Eduardo, Miguel, y yo todavía no hemos salido

we have (present perfect) - nosotros hemos


We've already explained it to her

Ya se lo hemos explicado

explained - explicado (-ar past participle)


You (vosotros) have not loved

Vosotros no habéis amado

you have (present perfect) - vosotros habéis


You all have not met my friend Alexander?

¿No habéis conocido a mi amigo Alejandro?

met - conocido (-er past participle)


They have not finished their homework

Ellos no han terminado su tarea

they have (present perfect) - ellos/ellas/uds han


His books have been translated into many languages

Sus libros han sido traducidos a muchos idiomas

translated - traducido (-ir past participle)


TO HAVE (Present Perfect)

  • I have (eaten)
  • You have (eaten)
  • He/She has (eaten)
  • We have (eaten)
  • You have (eaten)
  • They have (eaten)

HABER (Tiempo Pretérito Perfecto)

  • Yo he (comido)
  • has (comido)
  • Él/Ella/Ud ha (comido)
  • Nosotros hemos (comido)
  • Vosotros habéis (comido)
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds han (comido)


What is the past participle ending for -ar verbs like amar?

Participio de verbos que terminan en -ar como amar (-ado)

  • Yo he amado
  • Tú has amado
  • Él ha amado
  • Nosotros hemos amado
  • Vosotros habéis amado
  • Ellos han amado


What is the past participle ending for -er and -ir verbs like comer?

Participio de verbos que terminan en -er e -ir como comer (-ido)

  • Yo he comido
  • Tú has comido
  • Él ha comido
  • Nosotros hemos comido
  • Vosotros habéis comido
  • Ellos han comido


What is the Past Perfect Tense in Spanish?

The Past Perfect Tense is formed by using haber as an auxiliary verb. Haber is conjugated in the imperfect tense with the past participle of the primary verb. It describes the past of the past:

  • "They had already left" --> Ya se habían ido
  • "They had eaten all of the food" --> Habían comido toda la comida


When they got back, I had already eaten

Cuando volvieron, yo ya había comido

I had eaten (past perfect) - (yo) había comido. Note that in Spanish compound tenses, the helping verb haber and its participle are never separated.


You had done a lot for them

Tú habías hecho mucho para ellos

you had done (past perfect) - habías hecho


Monica had been happy

Mónica había estado feliz

he/she had been (past perfect) - (él/ella/Ud) había estado


My brother and I had reserved a hotel room

Mi hermano y yo habíamos reservado un cuarto en el hotel

we had reserved (past perfect) - habíamos reservado


You all had already left when they arrived

Ustedes ya se habían ido cuando llegaron

you had left (past perfect, Spain) - habíais ido


They had sung for the president

Habían cantado para el presidente

they had sung (past perfect) - habían cantado


I had moved to California for a year

Me había mudado a California por un año

I had moved (changed residence) - me había mudado. Recall that mudarse is a reflexive verb, and that the reflexive pronoun should go before the helping verb in compound tenses.


Had you reserved a hotel room before your trip?

¿Habías reservado un cuarto en el hotel antes del viaje?

you had reserved (in a hotel, restaurant) - tú habías reservado


She had bumped into an old friend in Berlin

Ella se había tropezado con un viejo amigo en Berlín

he/she had bumped into (past perfect) - él/ella/Ud se había tropezado con


We had told her everything

Le habíamos contado todo

We had told (past perfect) - nosotros habíamos contado


The teacher had posed a dificult problem to the class

La profesora había propuesto un problema difícil a la clase

she had posed, put forward (past perfect) - ella había propuesto


They had announced the good news before the party

Habían anunciado las buenas noticias antes de la fiesta

they had announced (past perfect) - ellos/ellas/Uds habían anunciado


I had already prepared it beforehand

Ya lo había preparado anteriormente

earlier, beforehand, previously - anteriormente


TO HAVE (Past Perfect)

  • I had (eaten)
  • You had (eaten)
  • He/She had (eaten)
  • We had(eaten)
  • You had (eaten)
  • They had (eaten)

HABER (Tiempo Pluscuamperfecto)

  • Yo había (comido)
  • Tú habías (comido)
  • Él/Ella/Ud había (comido)
  • Nosotros habíamos (comido)
  • Vosotros habíais (comido)
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds habían (comido)


What are irregular past participles?

Some past participles in Spanish are irregular in that they do not end in -ado or -ido. Instead, they have entirely irregular forms: "I've already returned the books George lent me" --> Ya he devuelto los libros que Jorge me prestó.



You've opened my eyes to the truth

Me has abierto los ojos a la verdad

opened - abierto. Note that this is the irregular past participle of the verb abrir. The form abrido does not exsit.


The boy covers the table with a tablecloth

El niño cubre la mesa con un mantel

to cover, conceal - cubrir


The company has covered all the costs

La empresa ha cubierto todos los costos

covered, concealed (irregular past participle) - cubierto. The noun costo comes from the verb costar, "to cost." An alternative is gasto, or "expense."


She's told me everything about the trip

Me ha dicho todo sobre el viaje

said, told - dicho. Note that this is the irregular past participle of the verb decir. (The form decido does not exist.)


I read (past tense) the words written on the piece of paper

Leí las palabras escritas en la hoja de papel

written - escrito (irregular past participle).  Remember that past participles agree in gender and quantity with the verb that they modify. (e.g. palabras escritas, but un contrato escrito.)


I like to fry eggs for breakfast

Me gusta freír huevos para desayuno

to fry - freír


For breakfast I made fried eggs

Para el desayuno preparé huevos fritos

fried - frito (irregular past participle)


The homework is well done

La tarea está bien hecha

made, done - hecho (irregular past participle)


Did the machine print your name on the ticket?

¿Imprimió la máquina tu nombre en el boleto?

to print - imprimir


Your name is printed on the ticket

Tu nombre está impreso en el boleto

printed - impreso (irregular past participle)


He was sad because his dog had died

Estaba triste porque su perro se había muerto

dead, deceased - muerto (irregular past participle)


I placed your books and pencils on the table

He puesto tus libros y lápices en la mesa

put, placed - puesto (irregular past participle)


They want to resolve the problem

Quieren resolver el problema

to resolve - resolver


The problem has been resolved

El problema se ha resuelto

resolved - resuelto (irregular past participle)


All my pencils are broken

Todos mis lápices están rotos

broken - roto (irregular past participle)


Does his work satisfy him?

¿Le satisface su trabajo?

to satisfy - satisfacer


He's satisfied by the work he's doing.

Está satisfecho del trabajo que está haciendo.

satisfied - satisfecho


I haven't seen her in a long time

No la he visto en mucho tiempo

seen - visto (irregular past participle)


The president has returned from Europe

Ha vuelto el presidente desde Europa

returned from somewhere - vuelto (irregular past participle)


He has already returned the book to me

Ya me ha devuelto el libro

returned to someone - devuelto (irregular past participle)


What is the conditional tense in Spanish?

The conditional tense in Spanish generally corresponds to the English "would + (verb)" and expresses an uncertainity of the future.  It is used to:

  • Root a future action in the past: "Jorge told me that he'd go out at ten" --> Jorge me dijo que saldría a las diez
  • Express hypothetical thoughts: "I would help you with your homework, but I am busy today" --> Te ayudaría con tu tarea, pero estoy ocupado hoy
  • Allow room for a probability that may include conjecture: "With whom would Marta go out so late at night?" --> ¿Con quién saldría tan tarde Marta?
  • Express a courteous request: "Would you allow me to use your car?" --> ¿Me dejaría usar su coche?


I would talk but I don't want to

Hablaría pero no quiero

I would talk - hablaría. Note that regular -ar, -er, and -ir ending verbs are conjugated the same way in the conditional tense, with the endings simply added onto the infinitive


You would run, but you broke your leg

Correrías, pero te rompiste la pierna

you would run - correrías


José would write a book on Mexican art, but he's too busy

José escribiría un libro sobre el arte mexicano, pero está demasiado ocupado

he/she would write - escribiría


With whom would we sing?

¿Con quién cantaríamos?

we would sing - cantaríamos


You (vosotros) would understand, but you're not listening

Vostros entenderíais, pero no estais escuchando

you (vosotros) would understand - entederíais


With whom would they talk to at this hour?

¿Con quién hablarían a esta hora?

they would talk - hablarían


What are the conditional endings for regular -ar, -er, and -ir verbs?

Tiempo Condicional (-ar, -er, -ir)

  • -ía (yo)
  • -ías (tú)
  • -ía (él)
  • -íamos (nosotros)
  • -íais (vosotros)
  • -ían (ellos)


Most men like sports

A la mayoría de los hombres les gustan los deportes

most - la mayoría de


Good point

Buen punto

point - el punto. The word punto is also used to describe "points" in a sport or game, or to mean "period" in a sentence


I will not go out with him. Period.

No voy a salir con él. Punto.

period - el punto


Our teacher is in a coma

Nuestra maestra está en un coma

coma - el coma. Do not confuse this with la coma, which means "comma" (the punctuation mark)


There are too many commas in your essay. You're going to have to write it over again

Hay demasiadas comas en tu ensayo. Vas a tener que escribirlo de nuevo

comma - la coma. Do not confuse this with el coma, which means a "coma" (i.e. a vegetative state)


Most sentences end in a period

La mayoría de las oraciones terminan con un punto

sentence - la oración


This is the end of your Spanish lesson

Éste es el fin de tu lección de español

end - el fin


You should go to the party

Deberías ir a la fiesta

should - deber (in conditional tense). Note that while deber in the present tense means "must", any conjugation of deber in the conditional means "should". e.g. "We should talk" - Deberíamos hablar