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Flashcards in Lesson 7 Deck (127):

to begin

comenzar, empezar

to begin - comenzar, empezar. Note that both empezar and comenzar are irregular verbs that belong to the category of verbs that change their base from -e- to -ie


I begin to write my book today

Hoy empiezo a escribir mi libro 

I begin - empiezo


You begin your math class today

Hoy empiezas tu clase de matemáticas

you begin - empiezas. Note that hoy can also be placed at the end of the sentence, as it is in English, but serves as emphasis when used at the beginning of the sentence


Pablo begins to take pictures of his family

Pablo empieza a tomar fotos de su familia

he/she begins - empieza


You (usted) begin to run

Usted empieza a correr

you (ud) begin - empieza


My dad and I begin to work in our house

Mi papá y yo empezamos a trabajar en nuestra casa

we begin - empezamos


You (vosotros) begin your essays

Vosotros empezáis vuestros ensayos

you (vosotros) - empezáis


You and Jaime begin (ustedes) your Spanish class

Tú y Jaime empiezan su clase de español

you (uds) begin - empiezan


Rafa and Daniel begin to talk to Sandra

Rafa y Daniel empiezan a hablar con Sandra

they begin - empiezan



  • I begin
  • You begin
  • He/She begins
  • We begin
  • You begin
  • They begin


  • Yo empiezo
  • empiezas
  • Él/Ella/Ud empieza
  • Nosotros empezamos
  • Vosotros empezáis
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds empiezan



José closes the door to his room

José cierra la puerta de su cuarto

to close - cerrar. Follows the same -e- to -ie- base change pattern as empezar


My cousins lie to their parents

Mis primos mienten a sus padres

to lie - mentir. Follows the same -e- to -ie- base change pattern as empezar


I think that your idea is very good

Pienso que tu idea es muy buena

to think - pensar. Follows the same -e- to -ie- base change pattern as empezar. Note that creo ("I believe") can also be used to mean "I think" when referring to an idea, but pienso is used when describing deeper reflection


Rocío always thinks about you, Roberto

Rocío siempre piensa en ti, Roberto

to think about - pensar en


I want a big house

Quiero una casa grande

to want - querer. Follows the same -e- to -ie- base change pattern as empezar


I want that

Quiero eso

that - eso. Note that in Spanish, eso is gender neutral and is used for unidentified objects or abstract concepts


I want this

Quiero esto

this - esto. Note that in Spanish, esto is gender neutral and is used for unidentified objects or abstract concepts


I want that book

Quiero ese libro

that - ese, esa. When the object is known, we use the gender-specific adjective ese or esa before it, rather than the neutral pronoun eso


Do they sell shoes at that store?

¿Venden zapatos en esa tienda?

store - la tienda


These shoes are new

Estos zapatos son nuevos

new - nuevo


We want this magazine

Queremos esta revista

this - este, esta. When the object is known, we use the gender-specific adjective este or esta before it, rather than the neutral pronoun esto


You (plural) want to work in the United States

Ustedes quieren trabajar en los Estados Unidos

to want to ___ - querer + (infinitive)


Miguel prefers my house to his house

Miguel prefiere mi casa a su casa

to prefer - preferir. Follows the same -e- to -ie- base change pattern as empezar. Note that the construction "I prefer this to that" is Prefiero esto a eso


My little cousin (f.) does not understand when we speak Spanish

Mi primita no entiende cuando hablamos español

to understand - entender, comprender. Follows the same -e- to -ie- base change pattern as empezar. Note that the synonym comprender is used a bit less frequently than entender


We do not want to lose our pens

No queremos perder nuestros bolígrafos

to lose - perder. Follows the same -e- to -ie- base change pattern as empezar


to move


to move - mover. Note that mover is an irregular verb that belongs to a category of verbs that change their base from -o- to -ue-. Also note that mover does not mean to move from one house/country/state to another


I move the tables with my brothers

Muevo las mesas con mis hermanos

I move - muevo


You do not move your feet when you dance

no mueves los pies cuando bailas

you move - mueves. Remember that you do not need to use the possessive for body parts when the subject is understood. So tus pies would have been awkward here


Sofía moves her books to the table when she studies

Sofía mueve sus libros a la mesa cuando estudia

he/she moves - mueve


We move the chairs to our room to play cards

Nosotros movemos las sillas a nuestro cuarto para jugar cartas

we move - movemos


Adriana and Alejandra do not move their chairs

Adriana y Alejandra no mueven sus sillas

they move - mueven



  • I move
  • You move
  • He/She moves
  • We move
  • You move
  • They move


  • Yo muevo
  • mueves
  • Él/Ella/Ud mueve
  • Nosotros movemos
  • Vosotros movéis
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds mueven


Maite and Ariana show their photos to their grandparents

Maite y Ariana muestran sus fotos a sus abuelos

to show - mostrar. Follows the same -o- to -ue- base change pattern as mover


I cannot go to Argentina with my family because I have to go to the university

No puedo ir a Argentina con mi familia porque tengo que ir a la universidad

to be able to - poder. (-o- to -ue- base change in present tense). When conjugated in the present, poder is the equivalent of the English word "can"


Is there anyone who speaks English?

¿Hay alguien que habla inglés?

someone, anyone - alguien


No one wants to study today

Nadie quiere estudiar hoy

no one - nadie


Who is the other woman?

¿Quién es la otra mujer?

other - otro, otra


I think that she has another boyfriend

Creo que tiene otro novio

another, other - otro. Be careful not to say *un otro*, which is a common English-speaker mistake. The word otro means both "other" and "another"


Can I go to the bathroom again?

¿Puedo ir al baño otra vez?

again - otra vez, de nuevo. Note that otra vez literally means "another time"


Juan returns from Spain in nine days

Juan vuelve de España en nueve días

to return (from) - volver (de), regresar (de). Volver follows the same -o- to -ue- base change pattern as mover


Marcos eats again

Marcos vuelve a comer

to __ again - volver a __. This is an alternative way to convey repetition of an action. The other way would be to say Marcos come otra vez or Marcos como de nuevo


Do you (ud) dream about returning to the United States?

¿Sueña usted con volver a los Estados Unidos?

to dream (about) - soñar (con). Follows the same -o- to -ue- base change pattern as mover


She's looking for a boyfriend

Ella está buscando un novio

to look for - buscar. Note that we don't say buscando "a" un novio here because un novio is unspecified. If we wanted to say "She is looking for her boyfriend," we would say Está buscando a su novio


María cannot find her pen

María no encuentra su pluma

to find, encounter - encontrar. Follows the same -o- to -ue- base change pattern as mover. We could also say no puede encontrar su pluma, but it would mean more like "she is incapable of finding her pen"


I want to buy my own phone

Quiero comprar mi propio teléfono

own (possessive) - propio


Tomás and I do not eat lunch with our friends today

Tomás y yo no almorzamos con nuestros amigos hoy

to eat lunch - almorzar. Follows the same -o- to -ue- base change pattern as mover


At what time is lunch?

¿A qué hora es el almuerzo?

lunch - el almuerzo


Carmen never returns her books to the library

Carmen nunca devuelve sus libros a la biblioteca

to return (something); to give back - devolver. Follows the same -o- to -ue- base change pattern as mover


to serve


to serve, to work - servir. Note that servir is an irregular verb that belongs to a category of verbs that change their base from -e- to -i-


I serve my sisters something to eat

Yo sirvo de comer a mis hermanas

I serve - sirvo


You serve lunch to our friends

Tú sirves el almuerzo a nuestros amigos

you serve - sirves


Your car does not work?

¿Tu carro no sirve?

he/she/it works - sirve. Note that servir can mean "to work", when used without a direct object. You cannot use trabajar to describe whether an object works. Another alternative would be to use the word funcionar, which means "to work, to function"


We serve lunch every day

Nosotros servimos el almuerzo todos los días

we serve - servimos


You (vosotros) do not serve lunch to the students

Vosotros no servís el almuerzo a los estudiantes

you (vosotros) serve - servís


You all serve something to eat to our grandparents

Ustedes sirven de comer a nuestros abuelos

you (uds) serve - sirven


The pens do not work very well

Las plumas no sirven muy bien

they serve - sirven



  • I serve
  • You serve
  • He/She serves
  • We serve
  • You serve
  • They serve


  • Yo sirvo
  • sirves
  • Él/Ella/Ud sirve
  • Nosotros servimos
  • Vosotros servís
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds sirven


The principal of the school fires your teacher

El director de la escuela despide a tu maestro

to fire - despedir. Follows the same -e- to -i- base change pattern as servir


Juan measures his tall cousins

Juan mide a sus primos altos

to measure - medir. Follows the same -e- to -i- base change pattern as servir


to grab, to take


to grab, to take - coger. Note that coger is an irregular verb that belongs to a category of verbs that change spelling from -g- to -j-. This spelling change only occurs in the singular first person, yo cojo. Caution: In some countries, coger means "to make love"


I grab my books

Yo cojo mis libros

I grab - cojo


You grab your brother's pen

Tú coges el bolígrafo de tu hermano

you grab - coges


We grab all of the notebooks

Nosotros cogemos todos los cuadernos

we grab - cogemos


I choose my books well

Yo escojo bien mis libros

to choose - escoger. Follows the same -g- to -j- base change pattern as coger


  • Maria loves me more than anyone (loves me)
  • Maria loves me more than (she loves) anyone

  • María me quiere más que nadie
  • María me quiere más que a nadie.

Note that the use of the personal a changes the meaning of the sentence. Also remember that querer means both "to want" (for an object) or "to love" (for a person)


I protect my children

Yo protejo a mis hijos

to protect - proteger. Follows the same -g- to -j- base change pattern as coger


I gather all of our books

Yo recojo todos nuestros libros

to collect, to gather - recoger. Follows the same -g- to -j- base change pattern as coger  


He picks up his son from school

Él recoge a su hijo de la escuela

to pick up (a person) - recoger. Note that the word recoger means both "to collect/gather" and "to pick up"


to get, to obtain


to obtain - conseguir. Note that conseguir is an irregular verb that belongs to a category of verbs that change their base from -gu to -g.  In the first person, the base changes from -e- to -i


Where do I get that book?

¿Dónde consigo ese libro?

I get/obtain - consigo. Note that consigo only means "get" in the sense of obtaining something. Other English uses of the verb "get" will be discussed later


We never get anything good

Nunca conseguimos nada bueno

we get - conseguimos



  • I get
  • You get 
  • He/She gets 
  • We get
  • You get
  • They get


  • Yo consigo
  • consigues
  • Él/Ella/Ud consigue
  • Nosotros conseguimos
  • Vosotros conseguís
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds consiguen



I never follow my older sisters

Nunca sigo a mis hermanas mayores

to follow - seguir. Follows the same -i- to -e- base change pattern as conseguir


I chase the bad men

Yo persigo a los hombres malos

to pursue, to chase - perseguir.  Follows the same -i- to -e- base change pattern as conseguir


to construct, to build


to construct, to build - construir. Note that verbs like construir undergo a spelling change from -i- to -y- in most forms in the present tense


I build one building each year

Construyo un edificio cada año

I build - construyo


Do you build a lot of houses?

¿Construyes muchas casas?

you build - construyes


Is it true that Rafael builds a building each year?

¿Es verdad que Rafael construye un edificio cada año?

he/she builds - construye


My brother is building a wall in his room

Mi hermano está construyendo una pared en su cuarto

wall - la pared


We never build on this street

Nunca construimos en esta calle

we build - construimos


Do they build tall buildings?

¿Construyen ellos edificios altos?

they build - construyen


The men are building a very big house on this street

Los hombres están construyendo una casa muy grande en esta calle

building, constructing - construyendo



  • I build
  • You build
  • He/She builds
  • We build
  • You build
  • They build


  • Yo construyo
  • Tú construyes
  • Él/Ella/Ud construye
  • Nosotros construimos
  • Vosotros construís
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds construyen


What's wrong with Maru? It seems that she is sad

¿Qué tiene Maru? Parece que está triste

to seem, to appear - parecer


It seems that Paloma destroys her room every week

Parece que Paloma destruye su cuarto cada semana

to destroy - destruir. Follows the same -i- to -y- base change pattern as construir


We play Monopoly every day

Jugamos Monopoly todos los días

to play - jugar


It's a very good game

Es un juego muy bueno

game - el juego


We are going to play a game after dinner

Vamos a jugar un juego después de la cena

after - después de


We will arrive before lunch

Vamos a llegar antes del almuerzo

before - antes de


It is late

Es tarde

late - tarde


My friend and I are going to talk later

Mi amigo y yo vamos a hablar luego

later - luego. It is also acceptable to say más tarde


The children do not contribute to our ideas

Los niños no contribuyen a nuestras ideas

to contribute - contribuir


to convince

convencer a (alguien) de (algo)

to convince - convencer. Note that convencer is an irregular verb that undergoes a stem change from -c- to -z- in the first person


I convince my mother to go to the United States

Convenzo a mi madre de ir a los Estados Unidos

I convince - convenzo


Every day after class, we convince our parents to eat lunch at McDonald's

Cada día después de clase, convencemos a nuestros padres de almorzar en McDonald's

we convince - convencemos



  • I convince
  • You convince
  • He/She convinces
  • We convince
  • You convince
  • They convince


  • Yo convenzo
  • Tú convences
  • Él/Ella/Ud convence
  • Nosotros convencemos
  • Vosotros convencéis
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds convencen


to obey


to obey - obedecer. Note that obedecer is an irregular verb from a category of verbs ending in -cer that undergoes a stem change from -c- to -zc- in the first person, yo obedezco


I do not obey my parents every day

No obedezco a mis padres todos los días

I obey - obedezco


My brother and I never obey our sister

Mi hermano y yo nunca obedecemos a nuestra hermana

we obey - obedecemos



  • I obey
  • You obey
  • He/She obeys
  • We obey
  • You obey
  • They obey


  • Yo obedezco
  • Tú obedeces
  • Él/Ella/Ud obedece
  • Nosotros obedecemos
  • Vosotros obedecéis
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds obedecen


Raúl wants your help

Raúl quiere tu ayuda

help - la ayuda


I offer to help my grandmother

Yo ofrezco ayudar a mi abuela

to offer - ofrecer.  Follows the same -c- to -zc- base change pattern as obedecer


I never disobey my teachers

Nunca desobedezco a mis maestros

to disobey - desobedecer. Follows the same -c- to -zc- base change pattern as obedecer


I grow a lot in one year

Crezco mucho en un año

to grow - crecer. Follows the same -c- to -zc- base change pattern as obedecer 


I thank my father every day

Agradezco a mi padre todos los días

to thank (for), to give thanks - agradecer (por). Follows the same -c- to -zc- base change pattern as obedecer   


Natalia and Alex thank their teacher for all of her help

Natalia y Alex agradecen a su maestra por toda su ayuda

for - por. Note that por has many uses beyond those fulfilled by the English "for", as we will see later


I translate the book from English to Spanish

Traduzco el libro de inglés a español

to translate - traducir. Note that verbs ending in -ucir undergo the same stem change as verbs ending in -cer, changing from -c to -zc in the conjugation of the first person, yo


I do not drive my dad's car

No conduzco el carro de mi papá

to drive (a car) - conducir.  Follows the same -c- to -zc- base change pattern as traducir 


I introduce my girlfriend to art

Introduzco a mi novia al arte

to introduce - introducir. Follows the same -c- to -zc- base change pattern as traducir.  Note that introducir can only mean "to introduce someone to something". If you want to introduce two people, you say presentar


Today I introduce my girlfriend to my family

Hoy presento a mi novia a mi familia

to introduce - presentar. Note that we do not use the word introducir, since that can only mean "to introduce someone to something".


Do I know all of your cousins?

¿Conozco a todos tus primos?

to know (to be aquainted) - conocer. Follows the same -c- to -zc- base change pattern as obedecer.  Note that conocer is used in the following cases:

  • to be acquainted with or well versed in,
  • to know people (remember to include the personal a), and
  • to be familiar with places and things


If you speak English, then you can translate the book

Si hablas inglés, puedes traducir el libro

if - si. Note the difference between si "if" and "yes"


Do you know if she is Jorge's cousin? Because I don't know

¿Sabes si ella es prima de Jorge? Porque yo no sé

to know - saber. Note that saber is only irregular in its first person conjugation (yo sé). Also note that saber is used in the following cases:

  • "to know that…",
  • to know facts, and
  • to know information


I don't know who is there

No quién está allí

I know - yo sé. Note that this yo conjugation is the only irregular form of the verb saber.  The other forms are regular in the present tense.


What is the difference between saber and conocer (which both mean "to know" in English)?

SABER: to know facts or to know information.

CONOCER: to be acquainted with, to be fluent in, to know people, and to be familiar with places and things 


Do you know the answer?

¿Sabes la respuesta?

answer - la respuesta


Do you know the people that live here?

¿Conoces a la gente que vive aquí?

people - la gente. Note that la gente acts as a singular noun


Do you know when the TV show starts?

¿Sabes cuando empieza el programa de televisión?

TV show - el programa de televisión


to send

enviar, mandar

to send - enviar, mandar. When conjugated, enviar is spelled with an accent over the i, as are many other verbs ending in -uar, -iar, and -ar


I send letters every day

Yo envío cartas todos los días

I send - envío


Do you send letters to all of your friends?

¿Envías cartas a todos tus amigos?

you send - envías


Jaime sends letters to his girlfriend but does not receive letters from her

Jaime envía cartas a su novia pero no recibe cartas de ella

he/she sends - envía


We always send letters to Mexico

Siempre enviamos cartas a México

we send - enviamos


The teachers send their students' grades to their parents

Los maestros envían las notas de sus estudiantes a sus padres

they send - envían



  • I send
  • You send
  • He/She sends
  • We send
  • You send
  • They send


  • Yo envío
  • envías
  • Él/Ella/Ud envía
  • Nosotros enviamos
  • Vosotros enviáis
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds envían


Paula continues to talk to her teacher from elementary school

Paula continúa a hablar con su maestra de la escuela primaria

to continue - continuar. Follows the same accent change as enviar


Do you know my cousin Carla?

¿Conoces a mi prima Carla?

 Note that saber is never used to describe knowing people; for people, you must always use conocer