(Lesson 9) Lower Muscles Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in (Lesson 9) Lower Muscles Deck (76):
1

External abdominal oblique

Paired muscle forming the outermost layer of the lateral abdominal wall;
compresses abdominal wall, rotates trunk

2

Internal abdominal oblique

Paired muscle forming the middle layer of the lateral abdomen;
Compresses abdomen similar to external oblique

3

Transversus abdominis

deepest muscle in abdominal area;
compresses abdominal wall

4

Rectus abdominus

runs vertically on the anterior medial portion of the abdominal wall;
compresses and allows lateral rotation of vertebral column

5

Linea Alba

vertical midline band of connective tissue within the abdominal wall

6

inguinal ligament

extends from crest of ilium to the pubic tubercle; derived from aponeurosispsoas major

7

psoas major

round muscle adjacent to iliacus;
flexes hip and rotates femur laterally, flexes vertebral column

8

Quadratus lumborum

originates on iliac crest, located deep next to the kidneys;
extends lumbar spine

9

Erector Spinae

Composed of three muscle groups: Spinalis, logissimus, ilicostalis

10

Spinalis

originates on spinous process of upper lumbar and lower thoracic,
inserts on spinous process of upper thoracic vertebrae;
extends vertebral column

11

Longissimus

Originates on transverse process of vertebrae, except upper cervical,
Inserts on spinous process of upper thoracic vertebrae;
Extends vertebral column

12

Iliocostals

Originates on ribs and crest of ilium,
inserts on posterior part of ribs and transverse process of cervical vertebrae;
Extends vertebral column

13

Serratus posterior, superior

located on the inferior and lateral portion of the back deep to the latissimus dorsi

14

serratus posterior inferior

located on the inferior and lateral portion of the back deep to the latissimus dorsi

15

Multifidius

very thin muscle that runs on either side of the spinous processes of the vertebrae from the sacrum to the axis;
originates on the sacrum, erector spinae aponeurosis, posterior superior iliac spine, and the iliac crest
inserts on the spinous processes;
Stabilizes the vertebrae

16

Medial Meniscus

C-shaped fibrocartilage located within the medial condyles providing cushion within the knee joint

17

lateral meniscus

C-shaped fibrocartilage located within the lateral condyles to provide cushion within the knee joint

18

anterior cruciate ligament

tendon connecting the posterior side of the femur to the anterior surface of the tibia preventing anterior sliding of the tibia

19

posterior cruciate ligament

tendon connecting the anterioinferior femur to the posterior tibia preventing posterior displacement of the tibia

20

lateral (fibular) collateral ligament

tendon located on the lateral surface of the knee joint providing stability and prevents hyperadduction of the leg at the knee

21

medial (tibular) collateral ligament

tendon located on the medial surface of the knee joint providing stability and prevents hyperabduction of the leg at the knee

22

iliopsoas

composed of two muscles as they join at the inguinal ligament: iliacus/psoas major

23

iliacus

originates on iliac fossa;
insertion: lesser trochanter of femur
flexes hip and rotates femur laterally, flexes vertebral column

24

psoas major

round muscle adjacent to iliacus;
origin: transverse process and bodies t12-L5
insertion: lesser trochanter of femur
flexes hip and rotates femur laterally, flexes vertebral column

25

pectineus

small muscle medial to the iliopsoas;
origin: superior ramus of pubis
insertion: lesser trochanter of femur
adducts flexes and medially rotates leg

26

Sartorius

runs diagonally across anterior side of thigh from ilium to medial surface of tibial
origin: anterior superior iliac spine
insertion: medial to tibial tuberosity (pes anserinus)
Flexes thigh and rotates leg laterally

27

tensor fascia latae

muscle located on the superior, lateral, aspect of the thigh,
origin: iliac crest and anterior superior iliac spine
inserts into the iliotibial tract;
abducts femur

28

iliotibial tract

fibrous band extending from iliac crest and gluteus maximus muscle down the lateral thigh to the lateral condyle of the tibial bone

29

Quadriceps femoris

Composed of 4 muscles: Rectus femoris, castus lateralis, vastus intermedius, vastus medialis

30

Rectus femoris

runs vertically on anterior side of thigh;
origin: anterior inferior iliac spine
insertion: tibial tuberosity
extends knewe, flexes thigh

31

vastus lateralis

runs vertically on lateral side of thigh;
origin: greater trochanter and linea aspera
insertion: tibial tuberosity
extends lower leg

32

vastus intermedius

directly beneath the rectus femoris;
origin: shaft of femur
insertion: tibial tuberosity
extends lower leg

33

vastus medialis

runs vertically on medial side of thigh;
origin: inter trochanteric line and linea aspera
insertion: tibial tuberosity
extends lower leg

34

gracilis

runs vertically from pubis along medial side of thigh to tibial
origin: inferior ramus and body of pubis
insertion: medial to tibial tuberosity (pes anserinus)
adducts thigh, flexes and rotates lower leg

35

adductor longus

most superficial adductor on medial side of the thigh;
adducts, flexes, and externally rotates lower leg

36

adductor brevis

small adductor between longus and magnusl
adducts, flexes, and externally rotates lower leg

37

adductor magnus

largest adductor on medial side of thigh;
adducts, flexes and externally rotates lower leg

38

gluteus maximus

largest and most superficial gluteal muscle;
origin: iliac crest, sacrum, coccyx
insertion: Gluteal tuberosity, linea aspera, and IT band
extends thigh

39

gluteus medius

middle gluteal muscle;
abducts and rotates thigh medially

40

gluteus minimus

deepest gluteal muscle; abducts thigh

41

Deep Hip rotators

piriformis, superior gemellus, obturator internus, inferior gemellus, obturator externus, quadratus femoris

42

piriformis

Deep Hip rotator
pyramidal muscle inferior to gluteus minimus;
rotates thigh laterally

43

superior gemellus

Deep Hip rotator
inferior to the piriformis and runs from the ischial spine to the greater trochanter

44

obturator internus

Deep Hip rotator
located inferior to the superior gamellus and aides in lateral rotation of the hip

45

inferior gemellus

Deep Hip rotator
inferior to the obturator externus and runs from the ischial tuberosity to the greater trochanter;
aids in lateral hip rotation

46

obturator externus

Deep Hip rotator
deep to the quadratus femoris and aides in lateral hip rotation

47

quadratus femoris

Deep Hip rotator
most inferior of the hip rotators

48

hamstrings

muscles on the posterior side of thigh

49

semimembranosus

hamstring
most medial;
origin: ischial tuberosity
insertion: medial condyle of tibia
flexes lower leg, extends and medially rotates leg

50

semitendonosus

hamstring
between the semimembranosus and biceps femoris
origin: ischial tuberosity
insertion: medial to tibial tuberosity (pes anserinus)
flexes lower leg, extends and medially rotates thigh

51

biceps femoris

hamstring
two-headed muscle, most lateral;
origin: ischial tuberosity and linea aspera
insertion: head of fibula
flexes lower leg, extends thigh, and medially rotates thigh

52

pes anserinus

bony landmark medial to the tibial tuberosity; common tendonous insertion of gracilis, sartorius, and semi tendinosus

53

Plantaris

small muscle in posterior side of knee;
origin: lateral supracondylar ridge of femur
insertion: calcaneus
plantar flexes foot and knee

54

popliteus

deep muscle in the posterior region of the knee;
origin: lateral condyle of femur
insertion: posterior surface of tibia
flexes and rotates knee

55

gastrocnemius

calf muscle;
origin: medial and lateral epicondyles of femur
insertion: calcaneous (calcaneal tendon)
flexes foot and knee

56

SOLEUS

beneath the gastrocnemius;
origin: shaft of tibia and fubula
insertion: calcaneus (calcaneal tendon)
plantar flexes foot

57

calcaneal tendon

tendon that connects gastrocnemius, soleus, to calcaneus bone

58

tibialis posterior

originates on tibia and fibula,
inserts on metatarsals;
inversion and plantar flexion of foot

59

flexor digitorium longus

originates on posterior surface of the tibial
inserts on phalanges;
flexes digits

60

flexor hallucis longus

originates on posterior side of fibula,
inserts on hallux
flexes hallux

61

peroneus (fibularis) longus

originates on tibia and fibula
inserts on first metatarsal;
flexes and everts foot

62

peroneus (fibularis) brevis

originates on distal part of fibula
inserts on fifth metatarsal;
flexes and everts foot

63

peroneus tertius

originates on anterior surface of fibula,
inserts on fifth metatarsal,
flexes and everts foot

64

extensor digitorium longus

originates on tibia and fibula,
inserts on digits 2-5 (has 4 tendons);
extends and dorsiflexes digits/foot

65

extensor hallucis longus

originates on fibula,
inserts on distal phalanx of hallux,
extends hallux

66

tibialis anterior

originates on lateral condyle of tibia,
inserts on first metatarsal
dorsiflexes and inverts foot

67

extensor digitorium brevis

4-part muscle deep to the tendons of the extensor digitorium longus,
originates on the calcaceus
inserts in toes 2-5;
helps extend toes 2-5

68

flexor hallucis brevis

medial muscle on the sole of the foot,
originates on the cuboid and lateral cuneiform
inserts on the medial and lateral sides of the great toe;
flexes great toe

69

abductor digiti minimi

narraow muscle on the lateral border of the sole,
originates on the calcaneus,
inserts on the lateral side of the little toe;
abducts and flexes little toe

70

flexor digitorium brevis

wide, superficial muscle located in the middle of the sole of the foot,
originates on the calcaneus,
inserts on toes 2-5 ;
flexes toes 2-5

71

abductor hallucis

lies along the medial border of the sole,
originates on the calcaneus,
inserts on the medial side of the great toe;
abducts and flexes great toe

72

lumbricals

four small muscles in the sole of the foot,
originates on the tendons of the flexor digitorum longus,
inserts on the tendons of the extensor digitorum longus;
extends and flexes toes 2-5

73

quadratus plantae

rectangular shaped muscles with two heads,
originates on the calcaneus,
inserts on the tendon of the flexor digitorum longus,
assits flexor digitorum longus in flexing toes 2-5

74

adductor hallucis

two-headed muscle deep to the lumbricals,
originates on metatarsals 2-4, inserts on the lateral side of the great toe;
adducts and flexes great toe

75

extensor hallucis brevis

muscle on top of the foot;
originates on the calcaneus,
inserts on the big toel
helps extend the great toe

76

flexor digiti minimi brevis

muscle lies inferior to the fifth metatarsal;
originates on the fifth metatarsal,
inserts on the lateral side of the little toe
flexes little toe