What is respiration?
the process of breaking down glucose to release energy, which goes on in every living cell
what are the two types of respiration?
which type of respiration is more efficient and releases more energy?
what is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?
aerobic uses oxygen and produces carbon dioxide and water.
what is the word equation for aerobic respiration
Glucose + Oxygen -> Carbon Dioxide + water + Energy
What is the symbol equation for aerobic respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O
What does the circulatory system do?
it carries glucose, oxygen and CO2 around the body into the blood
Where does glucose come from?
Breaking down food in the digestive system.
Where does oxygen come from?
which blood vessel supplies glucose and oxygen and removes carbon dioxide?
what is diffusion?
the movement of solutes from an area of higher concentration to an area of low concentration across a permeable membrane
What do muscles use the energy from respiration to do?
Why does your breathing rate increase when you exercise?
your muscles are contracting more so need more energy. the increased respiration means you need to get more oxygen to the cells. your breathing rate increases to get more oxygen into the blood and to get the oxygenated blood around your body faster.
How do you work out cardiac output?
cardiac output = heart rate x stroke volume
When does anaerobic respiration take place?
When there is not enough oxygen available.
What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration
glucose -> lactic acid + energy
What is the symbol equation for anaerobic respiration?
C6H12O6 -> 2C3H6O3
What can a build up of lactic acid cause?
What is left after you have anaerobically exercised?
what is oxygen debt?
where you have to get the oxygen you didn't manage to get to your muscles.
What does EPOC stand for?
excess post-exercise oxygen consumption.
what is EPOC
oxygen debt. you have to keep breathing hard after you stop exercising so you can get more oxygen into the blood.
what is oxygen used for in muscles
convert lactic acid to CO2 and water
What is photosynthesis?
process in plants that makes glucose and oxygen.
what is the word equation for photosynthesis?
carbon dioxide + water -> glucose + oxygen
what is the symbol equation for photosynthesis?
6CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
give three adaptations of a leaf that make photosynthesis efficient
- leaves are broad so theres a large surface area exposed to light.
- Contain a lot of chlorophyll to absorb light.
- leaves are full of little holes called stomata, they open and close to let gases such as co2 and o2 in and out. they also allow water vapour to escape (transcription)
where does photosynthesis take place?
What are the limiting factors for photosynthesis?
light carbon dioxide temperature
how does light affect photosynthesis
how does carbon dioxide affect photosynthesis
how does temperature affect photosynthesis
what is osmosis
the movement of water across a semi permeable membrane down a concentration gradient
describe a practical you can do to show osmosis.
put potato and place the segments into different concentrations of sucrose. measure the wight before and after experiment. in low concentration of sucrose potato will get heavier in high concentration will get lighter, as water moves down concentration gradient.
which part of the plant takes in water?
root hair cell
What is active transport?
the movement of minerals against the concentration gradient
where does active transport happen?
what does the xylem do?
transports water and minerals from the root to the rest of the plant.
What does the phloem do?
transports sugars from the leaves to growing and storage tissues.
what is transpiration (in plants)
transpiration is caused by evaporation and diffusion. this creates a slight shortage of water in the leaf so more water is drawn up from the rest of the plant. this is a constant process. water escapes through the stomata
the place where an organism lives
where an organism is found
what are the two types of sample?
random (gives a representative)
give 5 examples of sampling tecniques
Pooter - for ground insects.
pitfall traps - ground insects
sweep nets - animals in long grass
pond nets - animals in ponds
quadrat -small organisms
how do you work out population size?
work out mean number or organisms per m^2 then multiply by total area.
how do you measure temperature?
how do you measure light intensity?
how do you measure pH
electronic pH monitor.