Life Stages / Nutrient Overview Flashcards Preview

Life Cycles > Life Stages / Nutrient Overview > Flashcards

Flashcards in Life Stages / Nutrient Overview Deck (28):
1

Infancy

Birth - 1 year
Rapid growth
Development of oral cavity and function, fine and gross motor skills
Family bonding and social component of eating starts

2

Preschool

Toddler: 1-3
Preschool: 3-5
Language, self feeding and simple meal prep, learns limits of acceptable behavior

3

School Age

Middle Childhood: 5-10
Preadolescence: 9-11 for girls, 10-12 for boys
Polish fine and gross motor skills, develops personality, independence
Formation of food related behaviors due to environment and parental influences
basic nutrition edu

4

Adolescence

11-21 years
Changes in nutritional requirements based on body composition, not age
Food choices based on social factors
Eating disorders
Gender differences after puberty

5

Adulthood

21-64 years
Health promotion and disease prevention are the focus
Micronutrients change more than macros
Long term patterns
Goals of maintaining desirable weight, body fat composition, variety of foods and prevention of dx

6

Aging

> 65
Fastest growing group in developed countries
Financial limitations
Increased malnutrition

7

Carbs

45-65% kcals (DRI)
Metabolism yields ATP for energy, CO2 and H2O

8

Glycemic Index

Measure of the extent to which BG is raised by a 50g portion of Carb compared to 50g of glucose
High GI = carbs are quickly and easily digested

9

Fiber

2 kcal/g
Plant material remaining after digestion - bulk for elimination
Decreases rate of glucose absorption

10

Fiber IOM

9-13 M: 25, F: 22
14-18 M: 31, F: 25
19-30 M: 34, F: 28
31-50 M: 31, F: 25
51+ M: 28, F: 22

11

Prebiotics

Fiber-like indigestible carb
Broken down by colonic bacteria -> products foster growth of new bacteria
"Fertilizer"

12

Probiotics

"Friendly" bacteria
Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria, Acidophilus
Naturally occurring from fermentation

13

Lactose Intolerance

Lactase sits on top of finger-like villi in GI tract - no lactase = can't digest lactose -> bloating, distention, cramps, gas, diarrhea

14

Protein

C, H, O and N (16% Nitrogen content)
10-35% kcals, usually 20%

15

Essential Amino Acids

**Pvt. Tim Hall**
Phylalanine
Valine
Threonine
Tryptophan
Isoleucine
Methionine
Histidine
Arginine** (Semi-Essential)
Lysine
Leucine

16

Semi-Essential AA

**CAT**
Cysteine, Arginine, Tyrosine
Essential during growth, infancy and sickness

17

Vegetarian Diet

Combinations adequate in Lysine, Methionine and Tryptophan
Grains - Methionine
Legumes - Lysine

18

Nonessential AA

Alanine, Asparagine, Aspartic Acid, Glutamic Acid, Glutamine, Glycine, Hydroxyproline, Hydroxylysine, Proline, Serine

19

Fat

Stores energy in adipose tissue
20-35% DRI

20

Essential Fatty Acids

Linoleic Acid (Omega 6) - vegetable oils, meats, human milk
Alpha Linoleic Acid (Omega 3) - EPA and DHA from fatty, cold-water fish, shellfish, human breast milk, dark leafy greens
Rec intake = 500 mg/day, US eats 100 mg/day

21

Vitamins

Coenzymes in metabolic pathways
Essential in the diet

22

Fat Soluble Vitamins

Stored in fat - so can be toxic
Vit A: eyes, epithelial tissues
Vit E: antioxidant
Vit D: Hormone, bone and mineral metabolism
Vit K: clotting

23

Water Soluble Vitamins

Synthesized by plans and supplied in the diet by plants, except B12 (which is stored in the muscle)
All (except Vit C) are coenzyme factors in cell rx

Thiamin (B1), Niacin, Riboflavin, Pyridoxine (B6), Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, Folate, Vit C

24

Minerals

Many essential to human life
Perform a wide variety of metabolic tasks
Occur in varying amounts in the body

25

Major Minerals

Calcium
Sodium
Magnesium
Sulfur
Phosphorus
Potassium
Chloride

DRI = >100 mg/day

26

Trace Minerals

Occur in small quantities in the body
<100 mg/day
Maintain homeostasis
Excess Ca interferes with Fe and Mg absorption
Excess Zn can reduce Cu absorption

Iron, Iodine, Manganese, Zinc, Cu, Chromium, Cobalt, Flourine, Molybdenum, Boron, Selenium, Cadmium, Silicone, Nickel, Vanadium, Tin, Arsenic, Aluminum

27

Iron

Most common deficiency - Trace Mineral
Deficiency = impaired behavioral development in kids and impaired pregnancy
Women lose 4-5 mg during menstruation
Excess can lead to atherosclerosis, especially in men

28

USDA Food Guidance History

1900's: "Food for Young Children" with 5 food groups - Milk and Meat, Cereal, Vegetables and Fruit, Fat and Fatty foods, Sugar and Sugary foods

1940's: First set of RDA's, "Basic 7"
1950's: "Basic 4" - milk, fruit and veg, meat, bread and cereal

1970's: First caution group, first concern about excess
1992: Food Guide Pyramid - first visual portions
2005: MyPyramid.gov - more emphasis on activity, switched to healthy vs. unhealthy within food groups
2011: ChooseMyPlate.gov - plate view, half fruits and veggies