Lipid Disorders Flashcards Preview

CMPP > Lipid Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lipid Disorders Deck (73):
1

What three things are cholesterol needed for

Cell membranes steroids vitD

2

What is the goal of fats

To get to the liver for synthesis storage and export

3

What makes it harder for fat to make it to the liver

The fact that they are hydrophobic I need it lipoprotein's to take them there

4

Where are triglycerides broken down

In the intestine

5

What are triglycerides broken down into

Glycerides and fatty acid's

6

What breaks triglycerides down

Pancreatic enzymes that are activated by bile acids

7

How are triglycerides broken down

They are rearrange and cholesterol is Esterfied and then join forces to form a chylomicron this chylomicron goes through the lymphatic system and eventually gets into

8

What are proteins that aid in metabolism

C proteins aka c Apolipoprotein's

9

What is a cofactor for lipoprotein lipase

C-II

10

Order of increasing density of lipoprotein's and decreasing amount of lipid caring capacity

Chylomicrons VLDL IDL LDL HDL

11

What form to carry fat from the intestine

Chylomicrons

12

Where is VLDL made

In the liver

13

What increases VLDL formation

Increased fatty acids to the liver

14

Where does the VLDL transport triglycerides and cholesterol to

Adipose tissue for storage and other tissue for fuel

15

What does removal of triglycerides produce

IDL and LDL

16

What are for stimulators a VLDL release

Obesity
increase in calories
ethanol
estrogen

17

How did fatty acids get delivered to the periphery

Hydrolysis of triglycerides in VLDL

18

What causes an increase of storage of fat

Increased lpl when is regulated by insulin

19

What preevent storage of fat

Starvation because it decreases LPL

20

What does LPL stand for

Lipoprotein lipase

21

Where are chylomicron Reminence taken up by

The liver

22

What helps to store cholesterol and the tissues

LDL

23

Where does catabolism of LDL take place

The liver

24

What happens as a product of LDL catabolism

Free cholesterol is made

25

What down regulates the HGM co-a reductase

Free cholesterol

26

What is the rate limiting step of cholesterol synthesis

HGM co-a reductase

27

Where does LDL catabolism take place

The liver

28

Where is HDL made

In the liver and intestines

29

What is scavenges cholesterol and returns it to the liver for excretion via bile salts

HDL

30

What is HDL able to accept

Free cholesterol and phospholipids from broken down chylomicrons and VLDL's

31

What enzyme is employed by HDL

LCAT

32

What does LCAT stand for

Lecithin cholesterol acetyltransferase

33

Where is LCAT produced

The liver

34

What did patients with liver disease have an increase in

Free cholesterol

35

What can HDL donate when it is broken downI

C proteins for VLDL's and chylomicrons

36

What delivers cholesterol to the adrenal glands and gonads for stereo genesis

HDL

37

How much ingested cholesterol is actually absorbed

One third at typical dietary intake

38

What happens to the most of cholesterol that is turned in the bile acid and secreted into the intestine

It is reabsorbed

39

Two reasons why you should fast for cholesterol

Chylomicrons can be present in the blood up to 10 hours after a meal and this. Maybe prolonged of alcohol is consumed

40

4 risk factors for hyperlipidemia

Hypertension
smoking
family history
siblings in the 40s with CAD

41

Four components of the lipid panel

Total cholesterol HDL LDL triglycerides

42

Who is high-risk for hyperlipidemia and should be tested

Men at 25 and women at 35+ one risk factor

43

Who is low risk for hyperlipidemia and should be tested

Men at 35 women at 45

44

Equation for total cholesterol

HDL plus LDL plus VLDL

45

How do you calculate VLDL

Triglycerides divided by five

46

What should total cholesterol levels be under

200

47

What is an inherited disorder of overproduction of VLDL

Familial hyperlipidemia

48

How do you treat hyperlipidemia when it is familial

Dietary restriction and lipid lowering agents

49

What is the inheritance of familial hypercholesterolemia

Autosomal dominant

50

What if three populations have a higher incidence of familial hypercholesterolemia

French-Canadians
Africans
Ashkenazi Jews

51

What is the problem and familial hypercholesterolemia

There is a mutation and LDL receptor gene and hepato- sites and cells are able to have an LDL reuptake

52

Levels of LDL cholesterol and triglycerides in familial hypercholesterolemia

LDL increase between 260 and 400
cholesterol above 300
triglycerides normal

53

Clinical hallmark of familial hypercholesterolemia

Tendon xanthomas typically the Achilles patellar extensor tendons of the hands

54

What is the primary treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia

Statins

55

What treatment is used in combination with statins for familial hypercholesterolemia

Niacin
bile acid sequestrants
Exetimibe

56

What is the inheritance of familial hypertriglyceridemia

Autosomal dominant

57

2 lab findings of familial hypertriglyceridemia

Moderate triglyceride elevation
moderate cholesterol elevation

58

Two problems in familial hypertriglyceridemia

Increase in VLDL production and a decrease in VLDL catabolism

59

Triad of diagnosis of familial hypertriglyceridemia

Triglyceride between 250 and 1000
cholesterol less than 250
decrease in HDL

60

What is the rate limiting step of cholesterol synthesis in the liver

HMG co-a reductase

61

What happens when you decrease cholesterol production

Increase his LDL receptors on the hepatocytes

62

What happens when you increase receptors on the hepatocytes for LDL

More LDL is reabsorbed from the blood

63

Two medications and their brands for the first line treatment of high cholesterol

Atorvastatin Lipitor
pravastatin Pravacho
HMG co a reductase

64

What is the mechanism of action of bile acid sequestration

Binds to the bile acids in the intestinal tract cholesterol is converted to bile acids bile acids are excreted into the intestine to aid digestion and are reabsorbed

65

2 bile acid sequestration drugs

Cholestyramine (questran)
Colesevalam (welchol)

66

Two unknown MOA second line treatments for high cholesterol

GemfibroZil (lopid)
Niacin

67

Side effects of cholestyramine

Constipation

68

Side effect of Niacin

Flushing

69

What drug fights cholesterol in the intestines before it gets to the bloodstream

Ezetimibe (zetia)

70

What is good to mix zetia with for increased cv benefit

Statins

71

Does the AHA recommend a specific number for LDL

No

72

What two things does LDL reduction lower the risk of

Stroke and MI

73

What three things are fats made of

Cholesterol triglycerides phospholipids