Lithosphere Flashcards Preview

Earth Science S1 > Lithosphere > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lithosphere Deck (36):
1

A naturally occurring inorganic solid with a definite structure and composition

Mineral

2

Mineral identification tests (4 types)

Hardness, luster, streak, cleavage and fracture

3

Hardness of a mineral can be tested by:

Scratching the mineral with a set hardness level

4

Defines as metallic or nonmetallic

Luster

5

Streak

The color of the mineral when it is broken up and powdered

6

Cleavage

Smooth, flat breakage

7

Fracture

Rough, jagged breakage

8

Rock formed from cooled magma

Igneous

9

Intrusive igneous rocks

Rocks that forms when magma cools under the earths surface

10

Extrusive igneous rocks

Rocks that formed above the earths surface

11

Dense, heavy, dark colored igneous rock that is rich in iron and magnesium. Found at seas

Basaltic igneous rocks

12

Light colored rocks with less density than basaltic rocks. Rich in silicon and oxygen

Granitic igneous rocks

13

Rocks that have compositions between granitic and basaltic rocks

Andestic igneous rocks

14

Metamorphic rocks

Rocks that undergo great pressure and heat at tectonic plate boundaries

15

Mineral grains flatten and line up in parallel bands

Foliated metamorphic rocks

16

Rock where no banding occurs, but the grains are smaller.

Non-foliated metamorphic rocks

17

Rocks made from cemented sediment particles

Sedimentary rocks

18

Detrial sedimentary rocks

Made from broken fragments of other rocks

19

Chemical sedimentary rocks

When solution evaporates, the minerals left behind cements together to form a rock

20

Shield volcano

Quiet eruptions, and spreads basaltic lava in flat layers. The lava flows. Ex. Hawaiian islands

21

Cinder cone volcanoes

Explosive eruptions that have a steep-sided loose slopes. More mountainous

22

Magma cooled in air

Tephra (small- cinder large- bombs)

23

Composite volcanoes

Alternates from quiet and explosive eruptions. Later forms of tephra and slow moving magma. Ex. Mount Saint Helens

24

Steps of sedimentary rock formation

Weathering (breaking down), erosion (movement), deposition (putting it there), lithification (cement together)

25

Agents of erosion

Wind, water, gravity, glaciers

26

Wind

Carries fine sand particles and created dunes

27

Water

Carries fine sand to pebbles. Creates V shaped valleys

28

Gravity

Can bring down a ton of sediments down at once. Landslides

29

Glaciers

Can carry any sediment sizes. It carves U shaped valleys and creates large lakes

30

Law of original horizontality

Sediments are deposited in flat, horizontal layers. (Steep dips or folding indicates tectonic disturbances)

31

Principle of superposition

In horizontal layers, the oldest is at the bottom

32

Law of continuity

A layer will spread across unless: sediment thins our at edge of basin, stops at barriers, or runs into a different type of sediment

33

Principle of cross-cutting

Faults and igneous intrusion are younger that the rock they cut

34

Tectonic plates pulling apart makes

Trenches (or volcanoes at the bottom of the ocean; hydrothermal vents)

35

Tectonic plates running into each other creates

Mountains and volcanoes

36

Fault lines create

Earthquakes