Liver: Hepatitis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Liver: Hepatitis Deck (19):
1

HAV
Transmission

Fecal-Oral transmission

Commonly from travelers

2

HEV
Transmission

Fecal-Oral

Common from contaminated water or undercooked seafood

3

HAV and HEV
Acute? Chronic?

HAV and HEV produce an acute hepatitis with NO chronic state

4

HEV is particularly dangerous in what patient population?

Pregnant women
Associated with fulminant hepatitis (liver failure with massive necrosis)

5

HBV
Transmission

Parenteral
(Childbirth, unprotected intercourse, IVDA)

6

HBV
Acute? Chronic?

Acute hepatitis that develops to chronic in 20% of cases

7

What does the presence of HBsAG tell you?

It is the key marker for infection. If it is positive for longer than 6 months, the infection is chronic

When the infection is resolved, HBsAG should become negative

8

What does the presence of HBcAB tell you? What kind of antibody is it?

IgM is the acute and window marker.
Indicates acute HV infection

9

What does the presence of HBsAB tell you?

Indicates resolved HBV infection (it is IgG against the surface antigen) or a protected, immunized individual

10

What does the presence of HBeAG and HBV DNA tell you?

The person is infectious

e antigen --> envelope

11

HCV
Transmission

Parenteral (IVDA, unprotected intercourse, needle stick)

12

Why is transfusion risk of HCV infection very low?

The blood supply is screened for HCV

13

HCV
Acute? Chronic?

Results in acute hepatitis and chronic disease in most cases

14

HCV
What is measured to measure progression of the disease?

HCV RNA will confirm the infection. Levels should decrease as recovery occurs. Persistence indicates chronic disease

15

HDV
How does it infect patients?

HDV cannot infect patients on its own.

Needs either superinfection or coinfection with HBV

16

Viral Hepatitis is usually due to the hepatitis virus, but what other viruses can cause it?

EBV and CMV

17

Signs of acute hepatitis infection

Jaundice (mixed CB and UCB) with dark urine (CB)
Elevated liver enzymes (ALT > AST)
Fever
Malaise
Nausea
Inflammation in portal tracts and within hepatocytes

18

How long does acute hepatitis last? How long does chronic hepatitis last?

Acute is less than 6 months

Chronic is greater than 6 months

19

What does grading of a liver biopsy assess? What about staging?

Grading - degree of inflammation (higher grade as inflammation spreads farther from portal triad)

Staging- degree of fibrosis (Stage 3 is bridging fibrosis)

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