Liver Metabolism I & II Flashcards Preview

Physiology (Gastrointestinal) > Liver Metabolism I & II > Flashcards

Flashcards in Liver Metabolism I & II Deck (16):
1

What is the anatomic unit of the liver?

hepatic lobule - the central vein is at the center of the lobule

2

What is the functional unit of the liver?

hepatic acinus - the portal tract is at the center of the acinus

3

What are the 8 major cell types of the liver?

hepatocyte
cholangiocyte
Kupffer cell
stellate cell
Pit cell
endothelial cell
smooth muscle
stem cell

4

Function of hepatocytes

general metabolic function

5

Function of Kupffer cells

macrophages
inflammatory mediators

6

Function of stellate cells

storage of lipid and vitamin A
primary source of fibrosis

7

Function of hepatic stem cells

role in regeneration
progenitors to hepatocytes and cholangiocytes

8

How is the liver involved in protein metabolism?

transamination reactions
protein synthesis
urea cycle metabolism

9

How is the liver involved in carbohydrate metabolism?

glycogenolysis
gluconeogenesis

10

How is the liver involved in lipid metabolism?

triglyceride synthesis
fatty acid oxidation

11

How is the liver involved in lipid digestion?

breaks down triglycerides, cholesterol esters, and phospholipids

12

What are the liver coagulation factors?

Factors I, II, V, VII, VII, IX, and X

13

What other metabolisms is the liver involved in?

porphyrin metabolism
metal metabolism
vitamin metabolism
glutathione metabolism
xenobiotic metabolism
hormone metabolism

14

Name some clinical signs of liver disease

anorexia
weight loss
icterus
steatorrhea
melena
hematuria
etc.

15

Explain the biochemical differences of obligate carnivores

1. high dietary protein requirements
2. lack of hepatic enzyme adaptation to low protein
3. essentiality of dietary arginine
4. low levels of ornithine
5. insufficiency of hepatic glutamate reductase
6. insufficiency of intestinal ornithine transcarbamylase
7. diversion to orotic acid metabolism
8. increased HDLs and reverse cholesterol tranasport to liver

16

What is the therapy for hepatic lipidosis?

identify/treat other disease
special feedings
high protein requirements
appetite stimulants