Liver, Pancreas, Biliary, Colon Cancer Flashcards Preview

Heme/Onc > Liver, Pancreas, Biliary, Colon Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Liver, Pancreas, Biliary, Colon Cancer Deck (8):
1

What is the definition of cancer?

mutations allowing for uncontrolled growth, sustained angiogenesis, tissue invasion & metastasis

2

Describe the management of colon cancer.

  •  Incidence - Approximately 150,000 new cases each year.
    • Anatomy
    • Risk factors- age > 60yrs, diet high in red or processed meats, family history, genetic predisposition
  • Methods of Screening—stool blood test, endoscopy
  • How/why do we stage colon cancer?
    • Staging determines treatment and prognosis
  • Principles of treatment
    • Localized tumors get a local treatment (Surgery)
    • Regional tumors get a local and a systemic treatment  (Surgery + Chemotherapy)
  • Advanced tumor get a systemic therapy (Chemotherapy)

3

Describe the management of pancreatic cancer.

  • Incidence—Approximately 45,000 new cases each year.
  • Anatomy
  • Histology—Ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common
  • Risk factors—age >60 yrs, smoking, chronic pancreatits, family history, genetic predisposition
  • Common mutations—KRAS, p53, p16, DPC4
  • Principle of treatment
    • Localized tumors get a local treatment (Surgery)
    • Regional and Advanced tumors get a systemic treatment (Chemotherapy)

4

What are the major risk factors for CRC?

  • ≥60 years of age
  • Diet high in red or processed meats
  • Have colorectal polyps or IBD
  • Family history of CRC
  • Personal history of breast cancer
  • Genetics
    • Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)
    • Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), also known as Lynch syndrome

5

What are some important warning signs for CRC?

  • Screening is important as early CRC often has no symptoms
  • As the polyp grows, it can obstruct the wall of the intestine or bleed
  • Warning signs:
    • Blood in stool or toilet after a BM
    • Unintentional weight loss
    • Dark or black-colored stools
    • New onset of diarrhea or constipation lasting more than a few days

6

What is the histological classification of pancreatic cancer?

  • Adenocarcinoma
    • ductal - 90-95%
    • acinar - 2%
  • Neuroendocrine
    • (islet cell) tumor - 5%

7

What is the common symptoms of pancreatic cancer?

  • Abdominal pain or abdominal pain radiating to back
  • Weight loss, anorexia
  • Diarrhea, nausea/vomiting
  • Jaundice
  • New onset diabetes
  • Depression
     

8

What is the mechanism of gemcitabine?

  • Pyrimidine analog functions as antimetabolite
  • Reproductive block at G1/S interface
  • Clinical response rate of 27% in advanced disease
  • Improved pain control, performance status, and weight gain compared to 5-FU