Living Enviorment: Lesson 6 (genetics) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Living Enviorment: Lesson 6 (genetics) Deck (60):
1

What does a chromosome do?

Chromosomes have instructions to make every protein and organism needs

2

What are proteins

Proteins are responsible for every characteristic of an organism

3

What is a gene

A set of instructions for making one specific protein

4

What are homologous chromosomes

46 chromosomes = 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes.

5

What are alleles?

They contain different versions of the same genes (ex blue, brown, green eyes)

6

What is a karyotype?

It is a photograph of the chromosomes

7

What is a karyotype used for?

It is used to check for chromosomal problems

8

What is the chromosomes that determines sex?

Xx for females and xy for males

9

What is gene linkage?

It is adjacent genes that are often inherited together (for example red hair and freckles)

10

What are sex linked traits

If one sex has a characteristic that is rarely present in the other sex (many are located on X chromosome only)

11

What iS dna

(Dna: deoxyribonucleic acid) dna is a polymer chain of nucleotides (it makes up chromosomes)

12

What are the rules of base pairing?

A bonds with t
G bonds with c
(RNA only a bonds with u)

13

What is the structure of dna?

Two chains of nucleotides joined together at the bases

14

Where is the information of our genes stored?

One strand holds the genetic information the other protects the information

15

What is dna replication?

The process of making new dna. The rules of base pairing helps dna to replicate. One strand of dna is used as a template to make the other strand

16

What is the dna replication that involves enzymes?

Helicase first unzips dna then polymerase makes new dna. Lastly ligament zips the dna together

17

What is tRNA

Carries amino acid to the ribosome

18

What is mRNA

Copy of the information for making a protein

19

What is rRNA

Makes up the ribosomes and the ribosomes reads mRNA to synthesize a protein

20

What are the steps in protein synthesis

-mRNA copies from a gene
-mRNA leaves nucleus
-mRNA attaches to a ribosome
-ribosome reads mRNA
-tRNA brings amino acids to the ribosomes
-ribosome makes the protein
-mRNA is recycled

21

What is a condon

Three nucleotides that are a code for amino acids (3nucleotide>1codon>1amino acid)

22

what is DNA translation in the cytoplasm?

A ribosome reads one codon at a time which the tRNA brings the correct amino acid to the ribosome after the amino acids connect to make the protein and finally there last codon is read the ribosome releases both the protein and the mRNA

23

What is nucleus transcription in the nucleus?

Dna(helicase) and then the mRNA with the needed information (RNA polymerase) and after the mRNA leaves the nucleus and the DNA molecule zips up (ligase)

24

In humans, a male has

One X chromosome and one Y chromosome

25

Human females produce egg cells that have

One X chromosomes

26

What is the approximate probability that a human offspring with be female?

50%

27

What percentage of human sperm cells carry and X chromosome?

50%

28

A human female inherits

One copy of every gene located on each of the X chromosomes

29

Alleles found on the same chromosomes

Are linked

30

What is a nucleotide found in DNA?

Deoxyribose + phosphate group + cytosine

31

He shape of a dna molecule is

Spiral

32

DNA makes up parts of

Chromosomes

33

The DNA message depends on the order of the

Nitrogen bases

34

A section of DNA with bases ATTCGC will line up with bases

TAAGCG

35

What is a mutation?

A permanent change in the DNA sequence of a gene

36

What can mutations do in the process of evolution?

It could benefit: help survive in its environment, hurt: extinction, or no effect

37

What are the causes of mutations?

Biological,accidental changes in DNA, crossing over, sexual reproduction, meiosis

38

Environmental factors for mutations

X-ray, ultraviolet radiation, toxic chemicals (carcinogen-causes cancer, mutagen-cause DNA to mutate, and teratogen-cause some destruction to dna),

39

Mutation affects

Cancer-body cell mutations only affect the organism, sex cell mutation does not affect the organism but may affect their offspring,

40

What is a tumor?

It is formed when a mutation causes a cell to lose control and perform mitosis too often

41

What is a Benign tumor

It does not spread and can be removed

42

What is a malignant tumor

It destroys nearby healthy tissues and organs

43

What is metastasis?

Tumor cells that travel to another part of the body to form new tumors. Once a cancer has metastasized it becomes difficult to treat

44

What is biopsy

It determines if a tumor is malignant or benign

45

What are the types of treatments?

Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy

46

What are some complementary and alternative medicine

Acupuncture, herbs, the rapeutic touch, visualization, meditation

47

What are some lifestyle risk factors

Alcohol consumption, smoking, physical inactivity, sexually transmitted diseases, steroid use, warts and ultraviolet radiation, occupation

48

How does diet affect the risk of developing cancer

Obesity increases the risk of developing cancer

49

What is genetic testing

It is already available for certain cancer related genetic mutation

50

What is biotechnology

It manipulates/looks at/ compares/ enhances the genetics of an organism

51

What are the applications of biotechnology

DNA fingerprinting, recombinant DNA technology, preventing diseases, identifying diseases, modifying organisms, cloning, stem cell research

52

What is forensics: DNA fingerprinting

It helps identify people based on their DNA, helps to find a criminal, used in paternity cases, reuniting families

53

What is a gel electrophoresis?

A method to organize pieces of DNA by size and order

54

What is he process of gel electrophoresis

The gel is made with channels in it
DNA is added to the channels
The gel is placed in salt water
And electric current is applied to the gel
DNA pieces move from the channel to the gel
Small pieces move faster
The dna pieces are stained to see how they moved

55

What is recombinant DNA technology?

It is the transfer and insertion of genes between organisms. Insulin and growth hormones for people are made this way

56

How does diagnosing and prevention of disease help?

Repairs damaged genes or diseases and identifies people with damaged genes before it becomes a problem

57

What is Genetic engineering- genetically modified organisms (GMO)

It adds genes to food crops to be resistant to drought, infection, disease and insects

58

What is cloning

It is the copy of the same organism, it is controversial, goes against religion, government needs to establish laws

59

What is stem cell research?

A stem cell can become any type of cell, new organ for replacement

60

What are ethical issues for stem cell research?

Stem cells could one dat save the lives of many people, currently stem cells come from placenta or aborted embryo tissues, religion believes that only a supreme should create life