Flashcards in Living Enviorment: Lesson 6 (genetics) Deck (60)
What does a chromosome do?
Chromosomes have instructions to make every protein and organism needs
What are proteins
Proteins are responsible for every characteristic of an organism
What is a gene
A set of instructions for making one specific protein
What are homologous chromosomes
46 chromosomes = 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes.
What are alleles?
They contain different versions of the same genes (ex blue, brown, green eyes)
What is a karyotype?
It is a photograph of the chromosomes
What is a karyotype used for?
It is used to check for chromosomal problems
What is the chromosomes that determines sex?
Xx for females and xy for males
What is gene linkage?
It is adjacent genes that are often inherited together (for example red hair and freckles)
What are sex linked traits
If one sex has a characteristic that is rarely present in the other sex (many are located on X chromosome only)
What iS dna
(Dna: deoxyribonucleic acid) dna is a polymer chain of nucleotides (it makes up chromosomes)
What are the rules of base pairing?
A bonds with t
G bonds with c
(RNA only a bonds with u)
What is the structure of dna?
Two chains of nucleotides joined together at the bases
Where is the information of our genes stored?
One strand holds the genetic information the other protects the information
What is dna replication?
The process of making new dna. The rules of base pairing helps dna to replicate. One strand of dna is used as a template to make the other strand
What is the dna replication that involves enzymes?
Helicase first unzips dna then polymerase makes new dna. Lastly ligament zips the dna together
What is tRNA
Carries amino acid to the ribosome
What is mRNA
Copy of the information for making a protein
What is rRNA
Makes up the ribosomes and the ribosomes reads mRNA to synthesize a protein
What are the steps in protein synthesis
-mRNA copies from a gene
-mRNA leaves nucleus
-mRNA attaches to a ribosome
-ribosome reads mRNA
-tRNA brings amino acids to the ribosomes
-ribosome makes the protein
-mRNA is recycled
What is a condon
Three nucleotides that are a code for amino acids (3nucleotide>1codon>1amino acid)
what is DNA translation in the cytoplasm?
A ribosome reads one codon at a time which the tRNA brings the correct amino acid to the ribosome after the amino acids connect to make the protein and finally there last codon is read the ribosome releases both the protein and the mRNA
What is nucleus transcription in the nucleus?
Dna(helicase) and then the mRNA with the needed information (RNA polymerase) and after the mRNA leaves the nucleus and the DNA molecule zips up (ligase)
In humans, a male has
One X chromosome and one Y chromosome
Human females produce egg cells that have
One X chromosomes
What is the approximate probability that a human offspring with be female?
What percentage of human sperm cells carry and X chromosome?
A human female inherits
One copy of every gene located on each of the X chromosomes
Alleles found on the same chromosomes