Flashcards in Living Enviorment: Lesson 6 (genetics) Deck (60):
What does a chromosome do?
Chromosomes have instructions to make every protein and organism needs
What are proteins
Proteins are responsible for every characteristic of an organism
What is a gene
A set of instructions for making one specific protein
What are homologous chromosomes
46 chromosomes = 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes.
What are alleles?
They contain different versions of the same genes (ex blue, brown, green eyes)
What is a karyotype?
It is a photograph of the chromosomes
What is a karyotype used for?
It is used to check for chromosomal problems
What is the chromosomes that determines sex?
Xx for females and xy for males
What is gene linkage?
It is adjacent genes that are often inherited together (for example red hair and freckles)
What are sex linked traits
If one sex has a characteristic that is rarely present in the other sex (many are located on X chromosome only)
What iS dna
(Dna: deoxyribonucleic acid) dna is a polymer chain of nucleotides (it makes up chromosomes)
What are the rules of base pairing?
A bonds with t
G bonds with c
(RNA only a bonds with u)
What is the structure of dna?
Two chains of nucleotides joined together at the bases
Where is the information of our genes stored?
One strand holds the genetic information the other protects the information
What is dna replication?
The process of making new dna. The rules of base pairing helps dna to replicate. One strand of dna is used as a template to make the other strand
What is the dna replication that involves enzymes?
Helicase first unzips dna then polymerase makes new dna. Lastly ligament zips the dna together
What is tRNA
Carries amino acid to the ribosome
What is mRNA
Copy of the information for making a protein
What is rRNA
Makes up the ribosomes and the ribosomes reads mRNA to synthesize a protein
What are the steps in protein synthesis
-mRNA copies from a gene
-mRNA leaves nucleus
-mRNA attaches to a ribosome
-ribosome reads mRNA
-tRNA brings amino acids to the ribosomes
-ribosome makes the protein
-mRNA is recycled
What is a condon
Three nucleotides that are a code for amino acids (3nucleotide>1codon>1amino acid)
what is DNA translation in the cytoplasm?
A ribosome reads one codon at a time which the tRNA brings the correct amino acid to the ribosome after the amino acids connect to make the protein and finally there last codon is read the ribosome releases both the protein and the mRNA
What is nucleus transcription in the nucleus?
Dna(helicase) and then the mRNA with the needed information (RNA polymerase) and after the mRNA leaves the nucleus and the DNA molecule zips up (ligase)
In humans, a male has
One X chromosome and one Y chromosome
Human females produce egg cells that have
One X chromosomes
What is the approximate probability that a human offspring with be female?
What percentage of human sperm cells carry and X chromosome?
A human female inherits
One copy of every gene located on each of the X chromosomes
Alleles found on the same chromosomes
What is a nucleotide found in DNA?
Deoxyribose + phosphate group + cytosine
He shape of a dna molecule is
DNA makes up parts of
The DNA message depends on the order of the
A section of DNA with bases ATTCGC will line up with bases
What is a mutation?
A permanent change in the DNA sequence of a gene
What can mutations do in the process of evolution?
It could benefit: help survive in its environment, hurt: extinction, or no effect
What are the causes of mutations?
Biological,accidental changes in DNA, crossing over, sexual reproduction, meiosis
Environmental factors for mutations
X-ray, ultraviolet radiation, toxic chemicals (carcinogen-causes cancer, mutagen-cause DNA to mutate, and teratogen-cause some destruction to dna),
Cancer-body cell mutations only affect the organism, sex cell mutation does not affect the organism but may affect their offspring,
What is a tumor?
It is formed when a mutation causes a cell to lose control and perform mitosis too often
What is a Benign tumor
It does not spread and can be removed
What is a malignant tumor
It destroys nearby healthy tissues and organs
What is metastasis?
Tumor cells that travel to another part of the body to form new tumors. Once a cancer has metastasized it becomes difficult to treat
What is biopsy
It determines if a tumor is malignant or benign
What are the types of treatments?
Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy
What are some complementary and alternative medicine
Acupuncture, herbs, the rapeutic touch, visualization, meditation
What are some lifestyle risk factors
Alcohol consumption, smoking, physical inactivity, sexually transmitted diseases, steroid use, warts and ultraviolet radiation, occupation
How does diet affect the risk of developing cancer
Obesity increases the risk of developing cancer
What is genetic testing
It is already available for certain cancer related genetic mutation
What is biotechnology
It manipulates/looks at/ compares/ enhances the genetics of an organism
What are the applications of biotechnology
DNA fingerprinting, recombinant DNA technology, preventing diseases, identifying diseases, modifying organisms, cloning, stem cell research
What is forensics: DNA fingerprinting
It helps identify people based on their DNA, helps to find a criminal, used in paternity cases, reuniting families
What is a gel electrophoresis?
A method to organize pieces of DNA by size and order
What is he process of gel electrophoresis
The gel is made with channels in it
DNA is added to the channels
The gel is placed in salt water
And electric current is applied to the gel
DNA pieces move from the channel to the gel
Small pieces move faster
The dna pieces are stained to see how they moved
What is recombinant DNA technology?
It is the transfer and insertion of genes between organisms. Insulin and growth hormones for people are made this way
How does diagnosing and prevention of disease help?
Repairs damaged genes or diseases and identifies people with damaged genes before it becomes a problem
What is Genetic engineering- genetically modified organisms (GMO)
It adds genes to food crops to be resistant to drought, infection, disease and insects
What is cloning
It is the copy of the same organism, it is controversial, goes against religion, government needs to establish laws
What is stem cell research?
A stem cell can become any type of cell, new organ for replacement