Flashcards in Load Transfer Deck (46):
Define strength as a structural principal
Strength of all structural elements, and of structure as a whole, must always be greater the the stresses induced by the loads and forces
Define Stability as a structural principal
The structure must have a reasonable factor of safety against collapse and over turning due to application of loads.
Define Robustness as a structural principal
Structure must be able to withstand the effects of accidental misuse or malicious damage without disproportionate collapse.
Define Equilibrium as a structural principal
All loads, forces and the moments that they cause on the structure bust be balanced by the reactions so that the structure experiences no movement.
What is defined by the structure of a building
The elements of construction which accept the loads and forces imposed upon the building in a way that it remains strong, stable and robust. Loads, forces and reactions are all in equilibrium and deformations are kept within acceptable limits.
What are the components of a Building Structure (4)
Roof, Floors, Walls, Foundations
What is the function of the Roof
To bear the roof dead load, and transfer any imposed loads to the walls.
What is the function of the Floor
To bear dead load of the wall structure, and transfer any imposed loads to walls or ground.
What is the function of the Walls
To bear the dead load of the walls, accept loads from the floor and roof and transfer them to the foundations.
What is the function of the Foundations
T accept loads from from walls and transfer them to the ground.
Why must load acceptance and transfer be accomplished
So that the stresses inside and deformation of the materials are kept within acceptable limits.
What does 1n equate to
1 Kilogram of Mass x Acceleration of 1m/sec2
What does 1kn equate to
1000n = 1000kgm/sec2
What is mass defined as
The total amount of substance a physical object comprises of
What is weight defined as
mass x acceleration due to gravity (approx 10m/sec2)
The self weight of the structure and all permanent fixtures
The self weight of the structure and all permanent fixtures refers too
A loading allowance for building use
A loading allowance for building use refers too
Define Wind Load
A loading allowance due to wind pressure
A loading allowance due to wind pressure refers to
Define Uniformly-Distributed Loads (UDL)
Spread loads eg floor, roof
Spread loads eg floor, roof refer to
Define Uniformly-Distributed Loads (UDL)
Define line loads
loads along a line eg wall and strip footing loads
loads along a line eg wall and strip footing loads refer to
Define Point Loads
forces at a point eg column loads
forces at a point eg column loads refer to
What is the definition of Equilibrium
All the forces on the structure and the moments that they cause must be balanced by the reactions so that the structure mains stable and experiences no movement.
What is a moment
It is the twisting effect of a force about a centre of rotation. Similar to effect of a spanner to tighten a nut.
What is the equation for calculating moments
moment (kNm) = force (kN) x lever arm (m)
What is the equation for calculating point loads
moment (kNm) = value of point load (kN) x Lever arm (m)
What is the equation for calculating line loads
moment (kNm) = line load (kN/m) x length considered (m) x lever arm (m)
What are the two types of load
concentrated / Point load, distributed load
what are the four main principles of structures
strength, stability, robustness, equilibrium
what are the six structural components
roof, floors, walls, foundations, structural frames, connections
what are the two types of load described as
live load and dead load
define live load
the weight of people and their movement.
define dead load
self weight of structure and imposed loads
what are the 4 types of distributed load
uniformly distributed load, tapered patch load, patch load, tapered distributed load
what are the 3 types of forces acting on a structure
reactions, shear force, bending moment
What are the different components of reactions on a beam with a point load
L = length of beam, P = point load, VL = support left, VR = support right, A = left of P, B = right of P
How do you calculate the reaction of VL on a beam with a point load
P (load) x B (right of P) divide by length
How do you calculate the reaction of VR on a beam with a point load
P (load) x A (left of P) divide by length
how do we calculate the sum of reactions of beam with a point load
0.5 x P (load)
how do we calculate the bending moment at P (load) on beam with a point load
load (P) x left of P (A) x right of P (B) divide by length (L)