Logical Reasoning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Logical Reasoning Deck (77):
1

Family 1

Use stimulus to prove answer choice. No outside info. Accept info, even if error in reasoning.

2

Must be True/Most Strongly Supported

Family 1

3

Main Point

Family 1

4

Point at Issue/Agreement

Family 1

5

Method of Reasoning

Family 1

6

Flaw in the Reasoning

Family 1

7

Parallel Reasoning/Flaw

Family 1

8

Family 2

Stimulus under suspicion. Which one best meets questioned posed in stem. Can have outside info.

9

Assumption

Family 2

10

Justify the Conclusion

Family 2

11

Strengthen/Support

Family 2

12

Resolve the Paradox

Family 2

13

Family 3

Attack author's argument. Information in stimulus suspect. Which answer best attacks the argument in the stimulus?

14

Weaken

Family 3

15

Fourth Family

Accept Stimulus info. Use it to prove one of answer choices cannot occur. If an answer choice has outside info or not in stimulus then it could be true and is incorrect.

16

Must be True-1st Family correct answer:

Can always be proven by referring to the facts stated in the stimulus.

17

"If the statements above are true..."

1st family

18

"The statements above, if true..."

1st family

19

"If the information above is correct..."

1st Family

20

Which of the following must also be true

Must be True

21

Which of the following conclusions can be properly drawn on the basis of it?

Must be True

22

Which one of the following can be properly inferred from the statements?

Must be True

23

Most Strongly Supported-A

Do not have to pass a strict test, but often do, and should ytu to prove each answer choice as strongly as possible.

24

Main Point-A

Correct answer choice will be a rephrasing of the main conclusion of the argument. Must follow rom stimulus.
Wrong- 1) answers that are true but not the main point. 2) answers that repeat the premises of the argument

25

"Which of the following most accurate;y expresses the main conclusion of the argument?"

Main Point

26

Which of the following most accurately expresses the main conclusion of the journalist's argument?

Main Point

27

The main point of the argument is that

Main Point

28

Contapositive

Reverse & Negate
Denies the necessary condition, thus making it impossible for the sufficient condition

29

If

Sufficient

30

When

Sufficient

31

Whenever

Sufficient

32

Every

Sufficient

33

All

Sufficient

34

Any

Sufficient

35

Each

Sufficient

36

In order to

Sufficient

37

People who

Sufficient

38

Then

Necessary

39

Only

Necessary

40

Only if

Necessary

41

Must

Necessary

42

Required

Necessary

43

Unless

Necessary

44

Except

Necessary

45

Until

Necessary

46

Without

Necessary

47

Unless

Term modified by unless (except, until, without) becomes necessary condition. Remaining term is negated and becomes the sufficient condition.

48

Double Arrow

Indicates the two terms must always occur together. Both sufficient and necessary.

49

"If and only if"

Biconditional. Double arrow.

50

All but only

Biconditional. Double arrow.

51

Double Not Arrow

The two variables at the ends, cannot occue at the same time.

52

Weaken- A

Undermines the argument as decisively as possible. Focus on the conclusion.
Info in stimulus is suspect. Often reasoning errors are present.
Answer choices accepted as given, even if they include "new" info.

53

Calls into question, casts doubt, undermines

Weaken

54

How to weaken

Hurts the argument but does not ultimately destroy.
"Would the answer choice force the author to reconsider their position, or force them to respond?"
Conclusion may fail to account for some element/possibility.

55

Causality

A single cause MAKES an effect happen.
If found in conclusion be ready to either weaken or strengthen.

56

Weaken possible/probable conclusions

1) Show relationship is reversed
2) Show statistical problem exists with data used to make causal statement
3) Possible third cause that could've caused both elements.

57

Supports, helps, MOST justifies

Strengthen

58

Strengthen incorrect

1) Opposite answers
2) Shell Game
3) Out of scope- support issues either unrelated to the argument or tangential to argument

59

Advertisement-

Stimulus that follows has deceptive or faulty logic.

60

Strengthen except

Four incorrect answers strengthen the argument and the correct answer either has no effect, or weakens the argument.

61

Causality in Strengthen

1) Eliminate any alternate causes
2) Show when cause occurs, effect occurs
3) show when cause does not occur, effect doesn't either
4) Eliminate possibility that stated relationship is reversed
5) Data is accurate or get rid of problems w/ data

62

Justify the Conclusion Formula

Premises + Answer Choice = Conclusion.

63

Justify- A

Correct answer proves conclusion by adding piece of info to the premises, thus making the reasoning structure valid. MUST PROVE CONCLUSION 100%. Can have superflous infor but must prove conclusion.

64

The conclusion above logically follows if which of the following is assumed?

Justify the Conclusion

65

Which of the following, if assumed, would allow conlcusion to be properly drawn?

Justify the Conclusion

66

Which of the following, if true, enables the conclusion to be properly drawn?

Justify the Conclusion

67

Which of the following, if assumed, enables the argument's conclusion to be properly inferred?

Justify the Conclusion

68

Which of the following is an assumption that would serve to justify the conclusion?

Justify the conclusion

69

The conclusion would be properly drawn if it were true that

Justify the Conclusion

70

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed

Justify the Conclusion

71

Solving Justify Questions: Mechanistic Approach

1) Any "new" element in the conclusion will appear in the correct answer.
2) Elements that are common to the conclusion and at least one premise not normally in the correct answer-bridge already established
3) Elements in premise but not in conclusion.
Short: Link new elements in premises and conclusion, and ignore elements common to both.

72

What is an assumption?

Unstated premise of the argument. Author takes for granted and leaves unsaid. NECESSARY for conclusion

73

Assumption-A

Answer must contain a statement that the author relies upon and is fully committed to in the argument. CANNOT contain extraneous information.

74

Presupposition/assumption. NEVER uses if or any other sufficient condition indicators

Assumption

75

Defender assumption

Protect the argument. Show possible source of attack has been eliminated.

76

Assumption Negation Technique

Logically negate the answer choices, the negated choice that weakens the argument is the correct choice.

77

Assumption-At least one or at least some

Usually correct if starting like this. Double check it though