Long-Term Conditions (Chronic Illness) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Long-Term Conditions (Chronic Illness) Deck (33)
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what is pathophysiology?

defines the basis of the underlying disease process


what is clinical disease?

occurs when the pathophysiological process leads to a specific clinical consequence


what is the illness episode?

time between the onset and offset of illness


what is body and structure impairment?

defined as any disturbance in body structures, or organ or system function which are present at birth and arise from disease or injury. this essentially equated to the presence of clinical disease.


what is activity limitation?

this is the restriction or lack of ability to perform an activity in a manner or within the range which would be considered normal.


what are participation restrictions?

a social construct depending on meanings and values. the social disadvantage for a given individual resulting from an impairment or activity limitation that limits or prevents the fulfilment of a role that is normal for that individual.


what is the WHO's definition of health?

health is a state of complete physical , mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity


what factors may influence a chronic disease?

1. environmental factors
2. genetic factors


what is vulnerability?

an individuals capacity to resist disease, repair damage and restore physiological homeostasis.

this is important in the extremes of life and even certain organs can vary - to an extent the liver repairs well, whereas the brain dopes not.


what is the impact of chronic illness on

A. patient
B. family
C. other family members
D. community/society

A. patient can have denial, apathy or self-pity

B. the family can undergo financial and emotional strain

C. other family members may become ill as a result

D. Community/society - isolation of an individual may result


suggest the important features of the hypothetico-deductive reasoning problem solving approach

some causes are more probable than others. whilst it is therefore efficienct to bear the common causes uppermost in our minds, at the back of our minds we also have to hold the important, although rare, possibilities. some of these may have to be positively excluded even though they are likely

some pieces of information are more valuable than others, in fat often a very few pieces of information are crucial, whilst other information adds relatively little to the solution of the problem


name the benefits of using the inductive method of problem solving

it is the best way of learning about clinical method, because it gives you a lot of practice in all the various skills that are involved

it is also efficient when you have no idea what is wrong with a patient and can be used by premature doctors.


what type of problem solving reasoning are GPs most likely to use?

hypothetico-deductive reasoning

this is partly because the business of dealing with large numbers of people whose initial complaints are completely undifferentiated demands some way of short-cutting through the painstaking intricacies of the inductive method, largely by cutting out lines of enquiry and examination that are likely to be unproductive.


what is pay-off?

Pay-off means that we give disproportionate
attention to possibilities that are curable or treatable if diagnosed at an early stage


Name 10 members of the primary health care team and their role

1. GP partners
2. GP assistants and other salaried doctors
3. GP registrars
4. Practice nurses
5. Practice managers
6. Receptionist
7. Community nurses
8. Midwives
9. Health Visitors
10. Nurse Practitioners


Describe the role of a GP partner

GP are the first point of care for most patients - most work carried out during consultations in the surgery and during home visits.

GP will allow doctors a wide choice of where to practice, with whom and how. they combine physical, social and mental aspects of health.


describe the role of a practice nurse

they work in GP surgeries as part of the primary healthcare team. in larger practices they may be one of the several practice nurses sharing duties and responsibilities while in others they may be working on their own taking on many roles.

they can be responsible for taking

1. blood count
2. ECG
3. minor and complex wound management (inc leg ulcers)
4. child immunisation
5. men's health screening
6. sexual health services
7. smoking cessation
8. travel health advice
9. family planning and women's health including cervical smears.


what are the roles of the district nurse?

they will provide direct patient care and also have a teaching and supportive role, working with patients to enable them to care for themselves or with family members teaching them how to give care to their relatives.

they try and ensure that the patient can return to their own home as quickly as possible.


what is the function of a midwife?

they provide care during all stages of pregnancy, labour and the early postnatal period.


what is the role of a health visitor?

lead and deliver child and family health services (pregnancy through to 5 years old)


what is the role of a macmillan nurse specialist?

they will specialise in cancer and palliative care, providing support and information to people with cancer and their families friends and carers from the point of diagnosis onwards.


suggest 5 allied health professionals

1. physiotherapist
2. dietetics
3. podiatry
4. pharmacy
5. counseling


what is the role of a pharmacist?

they ensure that patients will get the maximum benefit from their medications.


what are dietetics?

this is the interpretation and communication of nutrition science to enable people to make informed and practical choices about food and lifestyle in health and disease


what is the role of a physiotherapist?

they will help and treat people with physical problems caused by illness, accidents and ageing


describe 3 roles of an occupational therapist

they will work with young children, adolescents, adults and older people in these areas:

1. physical rehabilitation
2. mental health services
3. learning disabilities
4. primary care
5. paediatrics
6. environmental adaptation
7. care management


what are the 3 criteria for disability? describe the 3 of them

1. body and structural impairment

- abnormalities of structure , organ or system function (organ level)

2. activity limitation

- changed functional performance and activity by the individual (personal level)

3. participation restriction

disadvantages experienced by the individual as a result of impairments and disabilities (interaction at a social and environmental level)


what are the two methods of dealing with disability?

1. therapeutic

we change the nature of the disability - treating osteoarthritis with anti-inflammatories

2. prosthetic

taxi-card, occupational therapy and rails at home etc


what are the two different approaches to management of disability?

medical and social


suggest 7 factors that may affect someone's personal reaction to disability

1. nature of the disability

2. information base of the individual, education, intelligence and access to information

3. personality of the individual

4. coping strategies of the individual

5. the role of the individual (loss of role and change of role)

6. the mood and emotional reaction of the individual

7. the reaction of others around them

8. the support network of the individual