Long-term memory Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Long-term memory Deck (36):
1

What is semantic memory?

Memory for facts, meanings, knowledge, what things are, how they relate to each other

2

Is semantic memory stored with or without contextual info?

Without contextual info

3

What is episodic memory?

Memory for events

4

Is episodic memory stored with or without contextual info?

Stored with contextual info (who, what, when, where)

5

Which type of memory develops late & deteriorates early - semantic or episodic?

Episodic memory

6

Which type of memory is more vulnerable to neuronal dysfunction than other memory systems?

Episodic memory

7

Which type of memory is more vulnerable to forgetting - semantic or episodic?

Episodic memory

8

Which type of memory has affective links - semantic or episodic?

Episodic memory

9

Which type of awareness does semantic memory involve - noetic or autonoetic?

Autonoetic awareness - self-knowing, a feeling of 're-living'

10

Which type of awareness does episodic memory involve - noetic or autonoetic?

Noetic awareness - awareness of the info without recollection

11

What is procedural memory?

Memory of how to do something; usually requires practise to achieve expertise

12

What is implicit retrieval?

No conscious attempt to recall an experience/conscious memory of the experience

13

What type of memory is implicit retrieval?

Procedural memory

14

What is explicit retrieval?

A conscious attempt to recall items

15

What type of memory is explicit retrieval?

Declarative memory

16

What type of retrieval does performance on perceptual implicit memory tasks reflect?

Unintentional retrieval

17

Performance on a stem completion task was the result of an unintentional retrieval strategy
Priming after a perceptual encoding task reflected unintentional unconscious memory

Who found this?

Richardson-Klavehn et al. (1996)

18

What is unconscious plagiarism?

Failure of explicit memory & intact implicit memory

E.g. no conscious recollection of a conversation with a friend but the content of the convo was retained & interpreted as your own idea)

19

What is encoding?

The acquisition of info (e.g. revising for an exam, observing an event)

20

What is retrieval?

Recalling/showing evidence of prior learning/encoding (e.g. in a test, we might recall info/the answer might 'pop into mind' without a deliberate attempt to retrieve it)

21

What interaction does successful remembering rely on?

The interaction between encoding & retrieval

22

What is declarative memory?

Memory with conscious awareness

23

What are types of declarative memory?

Episodic & semantic memory

24

What is non-delarative memory?

Memory with no conscious awareness

25

What are types of declarative memory?

Procedural memory

26

Do amnesiacs have intact/impaired implicit memory and intact/impaired explicit memory?

Amnesiacs have intact implicit memory & impaired explicit memory

27

What does a typical explicit memory test involve?

1. Study a list of words
2. Recall/recognise words on a list that they had previously seen

28

What does a typical implicit memory test involve?

1. Study a list of words
2. Do stem completion ("name word that begins with TAB") or fragment completion (N__SE) tasks - complete with the first word that comes to mind

29

What typical results are found from explicit & implicit memory tasks with amnesiacs & health controls?

Controls perform better than amnesiacs on explicit tasks

Both are equally likely to complete word stems/fragments with items from the previously-studied list, but amnesiacs don’t know which words they have seen before --> supports the distinction between explicit & implicit memory

30

What type of brain damage did Patient EP have?

Medial temporal lobe damage

31

What memory impairments with Patient EP have?

Impaired declarative memory on tests of delayed recall & recognition

32

What experiment did Bayley & Squire (2002) do on Patient EP & a health control group?

What did they find?

Compared sentence recall in EP & healthy controls

Patient EP could learn new info (novel 3-word sentences) - he performed below the level achieved by controls but improved with training

33

In terms of semantic & episodic memory, which are amnesiacs typically impaired/not impaired in?

Amnesicas have impaired episodic memory & intact semantic memory

[have poor recall of names of new people & what they’ve read/seen/heard before but good recall of facts]

34

Who studied Patient KC?

Tulving et al. (2002)

35

What type of amnesia did Patient KC have?

Anterograde amnesia

36

What was Patient KC's memory abilities like?

He could learn new facts in the absence of any episodic remembering, but had impaired memory for events from his own life