Lower Extremities Anatomy Final Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lower Extremities Anatomy Final Deck (63):
1

supplies pyramidalis m. & skin over the anterior iliac crest and greater trochanter

subcostal nerve (T12)

2

runs across transversus abdominalis & internal oblique, supplies them, supplies the skin suprapubic region

iliohypogastric nerve (L1)

3

Innervates internal oblique, passes through inguinal canal innervates the proximomedial thigh, root of penis, upper scrotum or mons pubis and labia majora

Ilioinguinal (L1)

4

runs through and across psoas major & divides into 2
Branches: Genital & Femoral

genitofemoral nerve (L1-2)

5

enters inguinal canal, supplies cremaster & scrotal skin

genital branch of genitofemoral nerve

6

passes under inguinal lig., innervates skin over the femoral triangle

femoral branch of the genitofemoral nerve

7

runs over iliacus to pass under inguinal lig. & supply the skin over lateral thigh

lateral femoral cutaneous (L2-3)

8

Innervates adductors of the thigh & innervates a patch of skin medial (adductor area) above the knee.

obturator nerve (L2-4) = anterior division

9

lateral border of psoas major & separates into several anterior femoral cutaneous branches and the saphenous n., passes under the inguinal ligament. Supplies knee extensors & thigh flexors. Provides sensation to anteromedial thigh

femoral nerve (L2-4) = posterior division

10

Emerges superior to obturator externus & adductor brevis.
Supplies adductor compartment, mixes fibers with communicating branches from femoral n. to form Subsartorial plexus supplies small patch of skin medial thigh

anterior branch of obturator nerve

11

Emerges through middle of obturator externus & lies deep to adductor brevis. *Supplies adductor magnus (1/2) & obturator externus, terminates at joint capsule of the knee

posterior branch of obturator nerve

12

exits greater sciatic foramen emerges from the inferior border of piriformis and runs to the popliteal fossa and branches into the tibial & common fibular (common peroneal) nn.

sciatic nerve (L4-S3)

13

*exits greater sciatic foramen runs deep to gluteus maximus and emerges from its inferior border

posterior femoral cutaneous nerve (S1-S3)

14

N. to quadratus femoris (L4-S1) innervation

- hip joint
- inferior gemellus m.
- quadratus femoris m.

15

N. to obturator internus (L5-S2) innervation

- superior gemellus
- obturator internus

16

Pudendal n. (S2-S4) innervation

innervates most of the perineum

17

Superior Gluteal Nerve Innervation

gluteus medius, minimus, TFL

18

Inferior Gluteal Nerve Innervation

Gluteus Maximus

19

Nerve to Piriformis Innervation

piriformis muscle

20

Perforating cutaneous nerve innervation

skin over lower medial gluteal region

21

Clinical Correlation of fractures of hip

Usually intraarticular
Often require surgical repair
Leads to lateral rotation of lower limb
May lead to “aseptic vascular necrosis”

22

Sural Nerve innervates what

skin along distal 2/3rds of posterolateral calf & lateral aspect of foot, over 5th digit

23

Gluneal nerves supply skin of

gluteal region

24

Nerve injured for trendelenburg sign

superior gluteal nerve (L4-S1)

25

Sacroiliac Joint is richly innervated by

unmyelinated nerve endings & posterior primary rami of L2-S3

26

Os Coxae Bones

ilium
ischium
pubis

27

Borders of Femoral Triangle

Superior: inguinal ligament
Medial: adductor longus
Lateral: sartorius

28

Contents of Femoral Triangle

Femoral n., a., v., & lymph

29

Floor of Femoral Triangle

pectineus & iliopsoas

30

Roof of Femoral Triangle

Fascia lata, cribiform fascia, subcutaneous tissue, skin

31

Adductor, Subsartorial, or Hunter's Canal

Passage way for the femoral a. & v. as they transverse the anterior thigh to enter the posterior thigh. Approx. 15cm in length

32

Contents of Adductor, Subsartorial, or Hunter's Canal

Femoral a., v., & N. to vastus medialis & saphenous n.

33

Psoas Major Muscle

Origin: T12-L5 vertebrae and intervertebral disks; and transverse processes of L1-L5
Insertion: With iliacus as iliopsoas into the lesser trochanter
Innervation: L1-L3 ventral primary rami
Action: Flex the thigh at the hip

34

Psoas Minor Muscle

Origin: T12, L1 vertebrae & intervertebral disk.
Insertion: pectineal line; iliopectineal eminence
Innervation: branch of L1.
Action: Assists iliopsoas

35

Iliacus Muscle

Origin: iliac fossa - as the tendon of psoas major passes over iliacus, their tendons fuse forming the iliopsoas.
Insertion: lesser trochanter.
Innervation: femoral n. (L2 and L3)
Action: Flex the thigh at the hip

36

Sartorius Muscle

Origin: Anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)
Insertion: Superior medial surface of the tibia
Action: Flexes, abducts and laterally rotates the thigh at the hip; flexes & medially rotates the leg at knee joint.
Spinal Levels: Femoral nerve L2, L3

37

Pes Anserinus

muscular tripod:
- sartorius
- gracilis
- semitendinosus
Insert at the superomedial tibia

38

Innervation of Quadriceps Muscles

femoral nerve (L2-4)

39

Actions of Quadriceps Muscles

all extend knee
- rectus femoris also initiates thigh flexion

40

Insertions of Quadriceps Muscles

tibial tuberosity as the patellar ligament

41

Rectus Femoris Origin

Straight head – AIIS
Reflected head - rim of the acetabulum

42

Vastus Medialis Origin

Medial lip of the linea aspera & intertrochanteric line of the femur

43

Clinical Finding of Vastus Medialis

Weakness of this m. allows patella to track laterally during knee extension causing bony contact with the lateral femoral condyle.

44

Vastus Intermedius Origin

Anterior & lateral surfaces of shaft of femur

45

Vastus Lateralis Origin

Greater trochanter & lateral lip of linea aspera

46

Articularis Genu Muscle

Deep to vastus intermedius, sometimes blended with it.

Origin: distal femoral shaft
Insertion: Synovial joint capsule of the knee.
Innervation: Femoral n. (L2-L4)
Action: Retracts synovial capsule to prevent pinching during leg extension.

47

Pectineus Muscle

Origin: Pectineal line of pubic bone
Insertion: Pectineal line of the femur
Action: Hip adduction & flexion
Innervation: Femoral nerve
Spinal levels: L2, L3

48

Muscles that originate from ramus and body of pubis bone

Adductor longus
Adductor brevis
Gracilis

49

Muscles that adduct and medially rotate thigh

Adductor longus
Adductor brevis
Gracilis

50

Insertion of Adductor Longus

middle third of linea aspera

51

Insertion of Adductor Brevis

pectineal line of femur and proximal linea aspera

52

Insertion of Gracilis

superomedial surface of tibia

53

Adductor Magnus Muscle

Origin:
- Lateral (Adductor) part: ischiopubic ramus pubis
- Medial (Hamstring) part: ischial tuberosity
Adductor part: insertion at gluteal tuberosity, linea aspera of femur, medial supracondylar line
Innervation: post. branch of obturator n. (L2, L3, L4)
Hamstring part: insertion at adductor tubercle and medial supracondylar line.
Innervation: Tibial division of sciatic n. (L4 )

54

Obturator Externus Muscle

Origin: Exterior margin of the
obturator foramen & membrane
Insertion: Trochanteric fossa
Innervation: posterior division of the obturator n. (L3,L4)
Action: lateral rotation

55

Anterior branch of obturator nerve lies between

adductors longus & brevis

56

Posterior branch of obturator nerve lies

- superficial to obturator externus and passes deep to adductor brevis
- superficial to adductor magnus
- lies between adductor brevis and magnus

57

Biceps Femoris Muscle

Origin:
- Long head – ischial tuberosity
- Short head – lateral lip of linea aspera & lateral supracondylar ridge femur.
Insertion: Head of fibula & lateral condyle of tibia
Innervation (L5-S2):
- Long head: tibial division of sciatic nerve
- Short head: common fibular
division of sciatic nerve
Action:
- Short head flexes & laterally rotates the leg at knee
- Long head extends thigh at hip.

58

Semitendinosus Muscle

Origin: Ischial tuberosity
Insertion: Medial surface proximal tibia
Innervation: Tibial division sciatic nerve (L5-S2)
Action:
- Flexes leg & medially rotates tibia
- Extends the thigh at hip

Semitendinosus tendon with sartorius & gracilis form Pes anserinus

59

Semimembranosus Muscle

Origin: Ischial tuberosity
Insertion: Posterior aspect of the medial condyle of the tibia
Innervation: Tibial division, sciatic n. (L5-S2)
Action: flexes the leg & medially rotates tibia; extends thigh at hip

Part tendon is reflected, forming oblique popliteal lig.

60

Contents of Popliteal Fossa

Popliteal a., v.,
Common Fibular n.
Tibial n.

61

Sural nerve will supply

skin along distal 2/3rds of posterolateral calf & lateral aspect of foot, over 5th digit

62

Muscles that arise from ischial tuberosity

semimembranosus
semitendinosus
biceps femoris long head

63

Muscle arising from linea aspera and lateral supracondylar ridge

biceps femoris short head