Lower Extremities - leg, foot and posterior thigh Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lower Extremities - leg, foot and posterior thigh Deck (41):
1

Tibialis anterior m.

DA + action

DA - 1st cuneiform bone and 1st metatarsal bone

Action - dorsiflexion and inversion of the foot

2

Extensor hallucis longus m.

DA - base of the distal phalanx of the great toe

Action - Extends great toe and dorsiflexes the foot

3

Extensor digitorum longus m.

DA - tendons attach to the middle and distal phalanges of the lateral 4 toes

Action - Extends the toes and dorsiflexes the foot

4

Fibularis tertius m.

DA - dorsal surface of the shaft of the 5th metatarsal bone

Action - dorsiflexion and eversion of the foot

5

Proximal attachments for all anterior leg muscle

-proximal tibia
-proximal fibula
-interosseous membrane

6

The anterior leg muscles are innervated by

Deep fibular nerve

7

The lateral leg muscles are innervated by

Superficial fibular nerve

8

Skin in what region of the dorsal foot is supplied the cutaneous branches of the deep fibular nerve

Skin b/w great toe and 2nd toe

9

Fibularis longus

Turns around the lateral side of the cuboid bone and enters the sole of the foot

DA - Plantar surface of medial cuneiform and 1st metatarsal bone

10

Fibularis brevis

DA - tuberosity of the 5th metatarsal bone

11

The muscles of the lateral leg compartment have what action?

Eversion and plantar flexion of foot

12

What happens if the common fibular nerve is damaged?

-eversion of foot
-dorsiflexion of foot
-extension of toes
-loss of sensation to dorsum of foot and toes

13

Muscles in the posterior compartment of the thigh

Action

1. Biceps femoris
2. Semitendinosus
3. Semimembranosus

ACTION
-extend the thigh and flex the leg

14

Biceps femoris
PA, DA, innervation

Long head

PA - ischial tuberosity
DA - head of the fibula
innv - tibial division of sciatic nerve

Short head
PA - lateral lip of the linea aspera of the femur
innv - common fibular division of sciatic nerve

15

Semitendinosus muscle

long cord-link tendon at distal end

PA - ischial tuberosity
DA - medial surface of superior part of tibia
innv - tibial division of sciatic nerve

16

Semimembranosus

broad, membrane like tendon at its proximal end

PA - ischial tuberosity
DA - posterior part of medial condyle of tibia
innv - tibial division of sciatic nerve

17

Hamstring part of the adductor magnus muscle
-arises from
-innervation

-Arises from ischial tuberosity deep to proximal attachment of posterior thigh muscles
-hamstring part innv by tibial division of sciatic nerve
-adductor magnus forms the deep boundary of the posterior compartment of thigh

18

Borders of the popliteal fossa

1. Superolateral - biceps femoris

Superomedial - semitendinosus and semimembranosus

Inferolateral and inferomedial - 2 heads of the gastrocnemius muscle

Posterior - skin and deep (popliteal) fascia

Anterior - popliteal surface of the femur, posterior surface of the capsule of the knee joint, and the popliteus muscle

19

Describe the course of the common fibular nerve starting from it's origni

-Parallels the tendon the biceps femoris tendon
-passes superficial to the lateral head of the gastrocnemius

20

Which vessels are involved in the genicular anastomosis?

Which branches of the popliteal artery participate in the anastomosis?

1. Femoral artery
2. lateral circumflex femoral a.
3. Anterior tibial a.

Superior lateral and superior medial genicular arteries

21

Pes anserinus

Convergence of the sartorius, gracilis and semitendinosus tendons on the proximal end of the tibia

22

Posterior leg compartment

-superficial and deep groups:
-separated by
-action
-innervation

SUPERFICIAL
-gastrocnemius
-soleus
-plantaris

Action -> plantar flexion of the foot

DEEP
-popliteus
-tibialis posterior
-flexor digitorum longus
-flexor hallucis longus

Action -> inversion and plantar flexion of foot + flexion of toes

SEPARATED BY - transverse intermuscular septum

INNERVATION - tibial nerve

23

Gastrocnemius

PA - femoral condyles for each head
DA - calcaneal tuberosity by way of the calcaneal tendon

Plantar flexes foot

24

Soleus

PA - soleal line of tibia
DA - Calcaneal tendon

Plantar flexes foot

25

Plantaris

PA - lateral supracondylar line of the femur
-tendon courses b/w gastroc and soleus in proximal part of leg
DA - joins the calcaneal tendon and attaches to the calcaneus

Plantar flexor of foot and weak flexor of the knee

26

Popliteus muscle

PA - lateral condyle of the femur
DA - posterior surface of the proximal tibia

Action
-rotates the femur on the tibia to unlock the extended knee
-Weak flexor of the leg

27

Tibialis posterior

PA - tibia, fibula and interosseous membrane
DA - plantar surface several tarsal bones

Action - inverter and plantar flexor of foot

28

Flexor hallucis longus

PA - inferior 2/3 of fibula and interosseous membrane
DA - base of distal phalanx of great toe

Action - flexes great toe and plantar flexes foot

29

Tom, Dick ANd Harry

Anterior to posterior (posterior to medial malleolus)

T - tibialis posterior
D - flexor digitorum longus
A - posterior tibial artery
N - tibial nerve
H - flexor hallucis longus

30

Fibular artery
-comes off of
-course b/w
-provides blood to

-posterior tibial a.

-courses distally b/w tibialis posterior and flexor hallucis longus muscles

-supplies blood to:
1. muscles of lateral compartment of leg
2. lateral side of posterior compartment of leg

31

The muscles in posterior leg compartment are innervated by

Tibial nerve

32

Flexor digitorum brevis

Proximal:
Calcaneal tuberosity
Plantar aponeurosis

Distal:
Middle phalanges of toes 2-5

Nerve/Artery:
Medial plantar nerve/artery

Action:
Flexion of toes 2-5

33

ABductor hallucis

Proximal:
Calcaneal tuberosity (medial side)
Plantar aponeurosis

Distal:
Medial base of the proximal phalanx of the great toe

Nerve/Artery:
Medial plantar nerve/artery

Action:
Abduction of the great toe

34

ABductor digiti minimi

Proximal:
Calcaneal tuberosity (lateral side)
Plantar aponeurosis

Distal:
Base of the proximal phalynx of 5th toe

Nerve/Artery:
Lateral plantar nerve/artery

Action:
Abduction of 5th toe

35

Quadratus plantae

(deep to flexor digitorum brevis muscle)

Proximal:
Calcaneus

Distal:
Tendon of the flexor digitorum longus muscle

Nerve:
Lateral plantar nerve

Action:
Flexion of toes 2-5

36

Lumbrical

Proximal:
Tendon of the flexor digitorum longus muscle

Distal:
Extensor expansions of toes 2-5

Nerve/Artery:
Medial and lateral plantar nerves/arteries

Action:
Flexion of proximal phalanges of toes 2-5
Extension of middle and distal phalanges of toes 2-5

37

Flexor hallucis brevis

(medial and lateral head)
Proximal:
First metatarsal bone
Cuboid bone
Third cuneiform bone
Distal:
Both sides of the base of the proximal phalanx of the great toe

Nerve:
Medial plantar nerve

Action:
Flexion of the great toe

38

Adductor hallucis

Proximal:
Don’t worry about this

Distal:
Lateral base of the proximal phalanx of the great toe

Nerve/artery:
Lateral plantar nerve/artery

Action:
Adduction of great toe

39

Flexor digiti minimi

Proximal:
Base of the 5th metatarsal

Distal:
Base of the proximal phalanx of the 5th toe

Nerve/artery:
Lateral plantar nerve/artery

Action:
Flexion of the 5th toe

40

Interosseous muscles

(plantar on left; dorsal on right)

Attachments:
Between the metatarsals

Nerve:
Lateral plantar nerve

Action:
4 Dorsal are ABductors (DAB)
3 Plantar are ADductors (PAD)
2nd toe is the axis

41

Tibial nerve divides into?

Medial and lateral plantar nerves -> common and proper plantar digital nerves