Lower Extremity Special Tests Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lower Extremity Special Tests Deck (30)
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Patrick (FABERE) test

Tests for osteoarthritis, Iliopsoas spasm and sacroiliac dysfunction

Flexion, abduction, external rotation, extension

Physician pushes on the joint and pain is a positive result


FADIR test

Flexion abduction and internal rotation

Tests for (FAI) C-sign, possible labral tears and early OA.

Positive sign is pain

*C-sign is patient cups ipsilateral hand on hip in a C shape*


Normal motion for hip flexion and extension

Flexion = 90-150 degrees

Extension = 0-35 degrees


Normal motion for hip abduction and abduction

Abduction = 15-45 degrees

Abduction = 15-55 degrees


Normal motion for hip external/internal rotation

External rotation = 10-55 degrees

Internal rotation = 20-50 degrees


OBER test

Tests for tightness of iliotibial band or tensor fascia lata

Patient lateral recumbent position and knee is flexed with hip extended.

Positive sign is hip/knee remains abducted


Trendelenburg test

Assess gluteus mediums on the leg standing side

Have patient stand on one leg and flex the other knee

Positive is non stance pelvis dips down.

Normal is non stance pelvis stays even with stance or even moves higher.


Thomas test

Tests for contracture of Illiopsoas muscle of the non flexed leg.

Test is positive if the leg cannot lay on the table.

Indicates Iliopsoas hypertonicity


MCL and LCL prevents what glide respectively

MCL= prevents excess vagus

LCL =. Prevents excess varus


Knee joint normal motion

Flexion = 120-150 degrees

Extension = 2-10 degrees

Internal rotation = 10 degrees

External rotation = 30-40 degrees


Bludgeon and ballottement test

Test for effusion of knee joint.


Patellar grind test

Assess for patellofemoral syndrome and chondromalacia patellae

Can be active or passive

Positive test is pain.



First line is drawn from ASIS to the center of the patella

Second line is drawn from center of patella through tibial tuberosity.

The angle formed between two lines are the Q-angle

*women have larger Q-angles than men*


Apleys compression and distraction tests

Tests for torn meniscus (compression) and ligamentous disorder (distraction)

Positive = pain


McMurray tests

Assess for medial and lateral meniscus tears

Positive = pop, click and pain


O’donoghue Terrible or unhappy triad

ACL tear

Medial meniscal injury

MCL tear or injury


Shelbourne and nitz patterns

ACL -> MCL -> lateral meniscus

Knee injuries tend to occur in the fashion.


Anterior drawer test and Lachman test

Both test for ACL tears that are most common in pivot shift injuries

Drawer = bend knee to 90 degrees

Lachman = bend knee to 20-30 degrees

Both pull anteriorly on the proximal tibia

Positive is the tibia moves anteriorly.


Posterior drawer and Godfrey’s test (posterior sag)

Tests for PCL tears

Drawer = knee flexed to 90 degrees and proximal tibia is pushed posteriorly.

Godfreys test = hip and knee flexed to 90 degrees and held by the physician

Positive for both = tibia falls Posteriorly


Valgus and varus tests

Test MCL and LCL tears

Knee flexed to 15 degrees

Distal tibia is stabilized and medial/lateral forces are applied to the proximal tibia right below the femoral-tibial joint

Positive test = gapping and pain on the torn side.


Normal ankle joint movement

Plantarflexion = 0-50 degrees

Dorsiflexion = 0-20 degrees

Foot supination/inversion = 0-35 degrees

Foot eversion/ pronation = 0-25 degrees


Thompson test

Assess Achilles’ tendon tears

Pt prone and knee is flexed to 90 degrees

Squeeze calf muscle.

Positive = no plantar flexion upon squeezing


Medial ankle joints

All have tibiotalar in name


Lateral ankle joints

All have fibular and talofibular in their name.


Deltoid ligament crosses what joints

Posterior tibiotalar




Anterior drawer test in ankle

Tests for anteriofibular ligament tear

Pt ankle in plantar flexion with cephalad hand stabilizing lower leg

Caudad hand applies posterior to anterior force from the calcaneus

Positive = 8mm translation of higher.


Mortons neuroma

Most commonly seen between 3rd and 4th metatarsals

Irritation and inflammation via nerves in the narro toe box.

Most common in women wearing high heels.


Mortons squeeze test

Tests for present of mortons neuroma

Pressure applied across metatarsals to impinge the neuroma

Positive = pain/numbness


Hip joint vs shoulder joint

Hip is move stable but more restricted also


Hip motions

Flexion: 120 degrees

Extension: 10 degrees

Hip abduction: 40 degrees

Hip adduction: 30 degrees

Internal rotation: 30 degrees

External rotation: 35 degrees