Tidal Volume (TV)
Normal breathing 500ml
- Controlled by pneumotaxic center
- Starts Herring breuer reflex
Inspiratory Reserve volume (IRV)
Forced inspiration 3000ml
- Apneustic center in pons–>turns off pneumotaxic
- Shuts down Herring breur reflex
Expiratory Reserve volume (ERV)
Forced expiration 1100ml
*controlled by rectus abdominus
Residual volume (RV)
Keeps lung from collapse 1200ml
Functional Residual capacity
Total Lung volume
air in pulmonary tree not involved with gas exchange
Respiration is controlled by what nerve?
Dorsal motor nucleus of Vagus (X)
Slightly negative–>Normal quiet inspiration
opposes alveolar pressure
Negative pressure: Keeps lungs open. Pressure of fluid in space between lung pleura and chest wall
Difference between alevolar pressure and pleural pressure.
*Elastic forces in the lung AKA RECOIL PRESSURE
Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Lack of surfactant at birth
Bohr effect on inspiration at Lung
Hemoglobin binds 4O2–>releases H+, CO2, DPG, increases temp
*Shift to “Left=Shit to the Lung”
Bohr effect on inspiration at Tissue
Hemoglobin releases O2–>Binds H+, CO2, DPG, decreases temp
Lung is made of what type of tissue?
Pseudostratitifed ciliated columnar epithelium
Alveolar sacs are made of what type of tissue?
simple squamous epithelium
Which type of lung cell does gas exchange?
Type 1 pneuymocytes
What type of lung cell is responsible for surfactant production?
Type 2 pneumocytes
*Will lack in premature born children causing ARDS (Acute respiratory distress syndrome)
Macrophages of the lung?
Fluid in lungs collect at what recess?
Which lung cells produce mucus?
Increased H+, CO2,
Purpose of Chlroide shift
to keep pH constant: 7.35-7.45
Decreased ventilation leads to Respiratory Acidosis or Alkalosis?
- Caused by holding breath
- tx: Urinate NH4+
Increased ventilation leads to Respiratory Acidosis or Alkalosis?
- Cause by hyperventialtion
- tx: bag over head or excrete NaCO3 (bicarbonate)
Decreased H+, CO2
- Losing HCO3—>diarrhea, DM: ketoacidosis
- tx: hyperventilation blowing off CO2
- **if DM, smell ketones
- Losing HCL->Bulimia
- Losing H+->Diuretics
- tx: Slow breathing