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Flashcards in Lung cancer Deck (20):
1

How might a patient with lung cancer present?

Chest pain
Haemoptysis
Chronic chest infection
Weight loss
Fatigue
Breathlessness

2

What is the most common type of lung cancer?

Adenocarcinoma

3

Where might a tumour spread to?

Pericardium
Pleura
Brachial plexus
Recurrent laryngeal nerve
Oesophagus
Superior vena cava

4

What might invasion of the recurrent laryngeal nerve cause?

Hoarse voice

5

What is a pancoast tumour?

A tumour of the apex

6

What nerves might a pancoast tumour invade and how might a patient with the resulting pathology present?

Brachial plexus
Arm paralysis

7

What are some common sites for lung tumour metastases?

Liver
Brain
Bone

8

What biochemical abnormalities may indicate a lung cancer?

Hypercalcaemia
Hyponatraemia

9

What is Lambert-Eaton syndrome?

Muscle weakness in the limbs, most commonly caused by underlying malignancy - in lung cancer this is usually small cell

10

What changes in the hands could indicate underlying malignancy?

Finger clubbing

11

What investigations must be done if a diagnosis of lung cancer is suspected?

FBC
Ca, Na, K, Alk phos
Spirometry
Coagulation screen
CXR
Bronchoscopy
CT scan & CT guided biopsy
Lymph node aspirate
Aspiration of pleural effusion

12

Why is small cell carcinoma rarely suitable for surgery?

Metastasises early

13

Which cancer shows the best initial reaction to chemotherapy?

Small cell lung cancer

14

Which cancer is the most rapidly progressive?

Small cell

15

Which area does small cell lung cancer typically affect?

Hilum, may compress bronchial lumen externally

16

Which area do squamous cell carcinomas typically affect?

They are central, usually affecting main or segmental bronchi

17

Which area do adenocarcinomas typically affect?

Peripheries

18

Where do central adenocarcinomas arise from?

Bronchial mucous glands

19

Which other anatomical structures might adenocarcinomas rapidly invade?

Lymphatics
Blood vessels
Pleura

20

How might you distinguish a lung primary adenocarcinoma from a secondary carcinoma e.g. of lung or pancreas?

Primary adenocarcinoma express thyroid transcription factor