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Flashcards in Lung Cancer Deck (92)
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1

Lung cancer associated with gynaecomastia

adenocarcinoma

2

Paraneoplastic associations of small cell lung cancer

Lambert Eaton Syndrome (immune system attacks the neuromuscular junctions)

SIADH (hyponatremia)

Cushings syndrome
ATCH-increased cortisol production

3

Paraneoplastic features of Squamous cell lung cancer

Hypercalcaemia due to parathyroid hormone
Hyperthyroidism

4

Local effects of lung cancer

Haemoptysis
Pain (invasion of chest wall)
Pneumonia (obstruction-inadequate lung drainage)

5

where does lung cancer commonly metastasise to

bones
brain
skin
liver
adrenal

6

Systemic effects of lung cancer

Weight loss
Ectopic hormones (sq-PTH, SC-ATCH)
Fever

7

4 types of lung cancer

Small cell (worst)
Adenocarcinoma (most common)
Squamous
Large cell (lack of differentiation)

8

Investigations of lung cancer

CXR
CT Scan
Bronchoscopy + Biopsy (confirm cell type, treatment)
(mediastinal-EBUS)
FBC- elevated platelets
Coagulation screen
Na+, K+, Ca2+
Spirometry, FEV1
PET scan (to look for metastases if going for surgery)
NOT sputum cytology

9

What type of lung cancer is keratinising

Squamous

10

What type of lung cancer is gland forming and mucin

Adenocarcinoma

11

appearance of small cell cancer

small lymphoid like cells

12

high grade malignant tumour with endocrine phenotype

small cell carcinoma

13

gold standard treatment of lung cancer

Surgery

14

which Lung cancer is chemosensitive

Small cell- but has rapid resistance

15

what is immunohistochemistry

antigen expression on tumour cells

16

what tumour expresses TTF1

Adenocarcinoma

17

What tumour expresses p63 and cytokeratins

Squamous carcinoma

18

Therapeutic targets for SCLC

Myc, p53, Rb, 3p

19

Therapeutic targets for NCLC

K-ras, EGFR, myc, p53, Rb, 3p

20

Mechanism of EGFR mutation

in lung cancer there is mutations in EFGR so EGF doesn't have to bind to start signalling of the tyrosine kinase pathway-switched on all the time- excessive cell division

21

who is EGFR mutation most common in

Adenocarcinoma
Non-smoker
Asian

22

what do EGFR mutation LC respond to

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors eg erlotinib

23

why do lung cancers express PLD1
Which lung cancers express PDL1

PDL1 binds to PDL of CD8+ cells on T lymphocytes and inactive them
NSCLC

24

Process of bronchial lung cancer development

Squamous metaplasia, Dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, Invasive malignancy

25

describe peripheral adenocarcinoma

atypical adenomatous hyperplasia along the alveolar walls
associated with smoking, KRAS and EGFR mutations

26

Prognostic indicators in lung cancer

Stage (TNM)
Grade
Histological sub type

27

What is carcinoid

low grade neuroendocrine tumour

28

what tumours are often seen in salivary glands

Bronchial gland neoplasms

29

routes through which cancer can spread

Blood, Lymph, serous cavities

30

S+S of primary lung tumour

Haemoptysis
recurrent pneumonia
Stridor
SOB