Macromolecules Flashcards Preview

GAMSAT Biology > Macromolecules > Flashcards

Flashcards in Macromolecules Deck (31):
1

The four classes of biological macromolecules are

Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids

2

Carbohydrates are composed of which elements

C, H, O

3

Glucose is a ____saccharide

mono

4

Cells extract energy stored in glucose molecules through a process known as _____

cellular respiration

5

Maltose is a ___saccharide composed of _____

di; 2 glucose molecules

6

In plants, starch is stored as ____ in which organelle?

granules; chloroplasts

7

Starch can be withdrawn via which process to provide the plant with energy?

hydrolysis

8

Starch is a polymer of ____.

alpha-glucose

9

Animals store glycogen in which types of cells?

liver and muscle cells

10

A common structural polysaccharide in plants is

cellulose

11

Cellulose is a polymer of ____.

beta-glucose

12

A structural polysaccharide commonly found in fungi and arthropods

chitin

13

Nucleic acids are composed of repeating subunits called

nucleotides

14

Components of a nucleotide

pentose sugar, phosphate group, organic nitrogenous base

15

Purine nucleotides

Adenine, guanine

16

Pyrimidine nucleotides

Thymine, cytosine, uracil

17

What type of ring structure is associated with purines?

Double-bonded rings

18

What type of ring structure is associated with purines?

Single-ring structure

19

Nucleotides are linked to each other via a _____, formed between _______ and _______.

phosphodiester bond, phosphate of one nucleotide and the sugar of the next nucleotide

20

The base pairs on each nucleotide chain are joined by ____ bonds between nitrogenous bases

hydrogen

21

Main differences between DNA and RNA

1. RNA is single stranded
2. RNA contains uracil instead of thymine
3. RNA is very unstable and decomposes rapidly
4. Ribose sugar backbone in RNA contains an -OH group

22

Primary function of ribosomes

Synthesis of proteins

23

Primary function of mRNA

Messenger RNA delivers the DNA code for production of amino acids to the cytosol

24

Primary function of rRNA

Forms ribosomes by combining with proteins

25

Primary function of tRNA

Collects amino acids in the cytosol and transfers them to the ribosomes

26

Functions of proteins

Enzyme catalysts, transport, defence, structural support, movement, regulation of genes, storage of ions

27

Proteins that assist in folding of other proteins

Chaperones

28

Central dogma of gene expression

DNA is transcribed to RNA, which is translated to amino acids. A polymer of amino acids forms a protein.

29

Saturated lipids occur when

All internal carbons in a fatty acid chain are bonded to at least two hydrogen atoms

30

Unsaturated lipids

lipids with double or triple bonds in their fatty acid chains

31

Draw structure of glycerol molecule

CH2(OH)CH(OH)CH2(OH)