What are the three things proteins are needed for?
Growth, repair and maintenance.
Why do we need protein biologically?
To get the 11 essential amino acids our body can’t make.
Describe and define a HBV protein.
HBV - High Biological Value
Contain all the essential amino acids
Mainly animal sources (meat, fish, eggs, cheese, milk)
Soya beans and quinoa are plant based HBV.
Describe and define an LBV protein.
LBV - Low Biological Value
Are missing one or more of the essential amino acids.
Only in plant sources (peas, lentils, nuts, seeds).
Found in even smaller amounts in vegetables like spinach and broccoli.
How can you make a HBV meal from LBV foods?
Combining LBV proteins to get all the essential amino acids (e.g beans on toast).
What does DRV stand for?
Dietry Reference Value
What are the DRV of protein for the average adult male and fenale?
How can the DRV of protein change?
Physical active people need more protein for muscle growth and repair.
Pregnant women need about 6g more to help the baby grow.
Breastfeeding women require even more.
Growing children / teens need more in relation to their body mass as they are growing.
What happens with an excess of protein?
Can build up into fat.
Puts pressure on the liver and kidneys.
What happens with a deficiency of protein?
Growth is slowed.
Hair, skin and nails grow in a poor condition.
Wounds don’t heal as quickly and infection risk is higher as the immune system doesn’t work as well.
Some nutrients aren’t taken into the body.
Can lead to oedemia - a build up of fluid causing swelling (often around the feet).
Kwashiorkor - oedemia around the stomach, often in underdeveloped countries with malnourishment.
Describe soya as a protein alternative.
Plant based HBV
Can be eaten whole but cooked.
Can be used to make soya milk.
Can be processed to make other alternatives.
Describe TVP as a protein alternative.
Textured Vegetable Protein
Made from soya flour
When baked, has a meat-like texture that can be made into sausages, burgers and ready meals.
Describe Mycroprotein as a protein alternative.
Made from a fungus and egg white
There is a vegan alternative using potato starch.
Available in chunks, mince or fillets.
Often replaces chicken.
Describe tofu as a protein alternative.
Curdled soya milk. Different amounts of water content changes texture: Soft: Desserts Firm: stir-fries Extra-firm/dry.
How are protein alternatives like tvp and tofu flavoured?
Don’t taste of much on their own.
Great at absorbing flavours of sauces / marinades.
Wide range of pre-prepared flavourings.
List some protein alternatives that are not soya based.
Lentils, eggs, nuts, beans.
What are fats made of?
Three fatty acids and a glycerol.
What do we need fats for?
. Concentrated source if energy.
. Provide fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K)
. Keeps us warm and protects vital organs like the kidneys with adipose tissue.
. Makes cholesterop.
How do the chemical bonding of fats differ?
Saturated fatty acids have single carbon bonds.
Monounsaturated fatty acids have one double carbon bond.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids have more than one double carbon bonds.
What are the negative effects and characteristics of saturated fats?
Bad for your health. Solid at room temperature. High melting points. Come from animal sources. Can also come from coconut oil / butter. Too much increases cholesterol in blood, which can block artery and veins. Increases risk of heart disease.
Describe unsaturated fats and the two sub types.
Liquid at room temperature and low melting points.
Come from plant sources.
In vegetable sources.
Monounsaturated have one c-c bond. Olive oik, almonds, peanuts, avocados.
Polyunsaturated fats have 2+ c=c bonds. Seaseme oil, soybean oil, seeds, oily fish.
How much of our energy should come from the different types of fat? What are the DRVs for an average adult?
No more than 11% of energy from saturated fat.
No more than 25% of energy from unsaturated fat.
Average adult should consume no more than 20g saturated fat and 50g unsaturated.
What can happen with an excess of fat in the diet?
Weight gain as extra fat is stored around organs and under skin. Can lead to obesity.
Obesity can lead to other issues like type 2 diabetes.
Can increase blood cholesterol levels, which restricts blood flow around the body.
This increases the risk of high blood pressure / stroke / heart attack / heart disease.
What can happen with a deficiency of fat?
Can cause a vitamin defeciency in A, D, E and K.
Can lead to weight loss if there isn’t enough carbs.
Body becomes colder faster.
Thinner layer of fat that protects organs.