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Flashcards in Main Group Chem Deck (28)
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1

Sc (Scandium)

Common OS = 0, +3
Similar chem to Mg
No d-electrons in ions; colorless and diamagnetic

2

Ti (Titanium)

Common OS = 0, +4
Similar to C and Si
Structurally strong, very light weight metal
Great for bike frames, airplanes
TiO2 is very white, used as brightener

3

V (Vanadium)

Common OS = 0, +5
Used in alloys to strengthen metal (steel)
Toxic!

4

Nb (Niobium) and Ta (Tantalum)

Named after Greek myth daughter and father
Nb is a material of interest for superconductors

5

Cr (Chromium)

Common OS = 0, +3, +4, +6
First family with multiple OS found in nature
Name derived from the greek word for color (chroma)
Toxic!

6

Mo (Molybdenum) and W (Tungsten)

Biologically important for enxymes, pigments
W has very high melting point
Used for light bulb filaments, heat lamps

7

Mn (Manganese)

Has most OS states of first row transition metals
Not found in nature as pure metal, always in ore
Used as a catalyst, in alkaline batteries, strengtehning component in steel and as cofactors to many enzymes
Paramanganates are very strong oxidizing agents!

8

Tc (Technetium)

Lightest radioactive element (a beta emitter)
Only man made
Discovered in 1937

9

Fe (Iron)

Possible OS = +2 to +6; common OS: +2, +3
Most important element for modern civilization bc major component of steel
Most common element on earth by mass
Biological importance for oxygen transport in vertebrates, redox enzymes in plants & animals

10

Co (Cobalt)

Beautiful blue color for glass, dyes
Rare to find pure, more common in ores (toxic and smelly biproducts). Known as "golin" ore, "kobold" in german

11

Rh (Rhodium)

Hard, corrosion resistant, chemically inert, very rare, excellent metal for plating jewelry

12

Ir (Iridium)

Rare, much of it comes from outer space. Archeologists use Ir as tracer to develop and support theories about when asteroids hit Earth.

13

Ni (Nickel)

Stable, less reactive metals, good catalyst
applications: coins, batteries, corosion preventer

14

Pt (Platinum)

Stable, less reactive metals, good catalyst; rare, very unreactive, corrosion resistant. Applications: inert electrodes, jewelry, anti-cancer drugs

15

Pd (Palladium)

Stable, less reactive metals, good catalyst

16

Cu (Copper)

Excellent conductor of electricity, dura.ble
Alloys: Cu/Sn (Bronze), Cu/Zn (Brass)

17

Ag (Silver)

Highest thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, and reflectivity.
More abundant than Au
Tarnishes from contact with sulfur

18

Au (gold)

Very unreactive, even to most acids
most malleable metal
used for jewelry, currency, etc

19

Zn (Zinc)

Corrosion resistant. Toxic!

20

Cd (Cadmium)

Toxic. Common OS: +2
used in batteries

21

Hg (Mercury)

Only metal that is liquid at room temperature, also toxic (dose); application: dental fillings

22

Atomic radius

Increases down column; decreases left to right across row

23

Electronegativity

Decreases down column; increases left to right across a row

24

Metallic Character

increases down column, decreases left to right across a table

25

Lightest element

in each family it's the smallest in atomic radius, has different chemistry from rest of family.

26

Alkali Metals

Highly reactive, group one. OS: +1React to make H2 gas.

27

Li

important to current battery tech; react with oxygen to form oxides, peroxides, and superoxides

28

H

lightest element; escapes from earth's gravity; small, low IMF, lightest at 20K; non-metal; location is debatable; applications: rocket fuel