MAINTENANCE OF PLANT HEALTH Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MAINTENANCE OF PLANT HEALTH Deck (31):
1

NAME 3 PHYSICAL METHODS OF CONTROL OF 3 NAMED PLANT PESTS

1. netting over cabbage to prevent large cabbage white butterfly from laying eggs on brassica leaves
2. hand or water jet removal of aphids
3. hunting and removing snails and slugs at night
4. tree guards to protect against rabbits
5. mesh netting as barrier against carrot root fly
6. beer traps for slugs

2

STATE 2 GARDEN PRACTICES THAT CAN DISTURB THE NATURAL BALANCE OF PLANT PROTECTION IN A GARDEN

1. use of nitrogenous fertilisers can make growth soft and susceptible e.g. to aphids
2. overuse of pesticides will kill beneficial organisms and may lead to resistance
3. not rotating crop e.g. potatoes to protect against blight
4. introducing infected plants, equipment or material into the garden
5. cutting hedges during nesting season for birds
6. composting infected or diseased material

3

NAME 4 BENEFICIAL ORGANISMS AND ONE DISTINCT PLANT PEST CONTROLLED BY EACH

1. hedgehogs for slugs
2. ladybirds for black bean aphids
3. lacewings for thrips
4. thrushes for snails
5. blue tits for aphids

4

NAME 2 WAYS OF ENCOURAGING BENEFICIAL ORGANISMS INTO A GARDEN

1. use plants that attract pollinating insects
2. avoid pesticides that may affect beneficial organisms
3. install log piles andnest boxes to encourage predators eg hedgehogs, birds
4. provide water in a pond with shallow sides for frogs that eat slugs
5. leave food for birds e.g. blue tits

5

NAME 3 BENEFITS OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL METHODS IN A GARDEN

1. avoids use of chemicals and build up of resistance
2. avoids direct damage to beneficial organisms in the food chain
3. avoids physical damage to the plant

6

WHAT IS MEANT BY BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF PESTS

Biological control is the use of naturally occurring or 'produced' predatory, pathological or parasitic organisms for the control of pests

7

NAME 3 LIMITATIONS OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL METHODS IN A GARDEN

1. there must be a sufficient population of pest present to support predator, pathogen or parasite population
2. predator may require specific temperature to thrive, limiting use to glass houses
3. some damage may have been done before pests is brought under control
4. greater skill and knowledge required, e.g. timing is critical

8

NAME 3 BENEFITS OF CHEMICAL CONTROL METHODS IN A GARDEN

1. used correctly chemical control targets pest, disease or weed at most susceptible time
2. may reduce damage to crop if applied early
3. may reduce time and labour cost of crop production
4. generally quick and simple to use
5. can be used preventatively
6. can be fast acting and pest specific

9

NAME 3 LIMITATIONS OF CHEMICAL CONTROL METHODS IN A GARDEN

1. pests and diseases may build up resistance to chemicals
2. may harm beneficial organisms
3. may leave harmful residue on food crops
4. expense
5. operator needs to be wear protective clothing
6. may damage plants in the vicinity

10

STATE THE MEANING OF PHYSICAL CONTROL OF PESTS

Physical control is the use of direct physical action to protect plants or destroy pests, diseases or weeds using e.g. physical barriers, hand picking of pests and cutting off infected material

11

NAME 2 METHODS OF PHYSICAL CONTOL AGAINST 2 NAMED DISEASES

1. removing and burning stumps and roots affected by honey fungus
2. removing and burning rose prunings and cuttings affected by blackspot

12

EXPLAIN THE TERM CULTURAL CONTROL

Cultural control is the use of good horticultural practices to reduce the incidence of pests, diseases, weeds and plant disorders

13

NAME 3 EXAMPLES OF CULTURAL CONTROL

1. Provide correct growing conditions (light, soil pH, drainage)
2. Do not compost infected material
3. Keep equipment sterile
4. Control weeds
5. Do not import infected material

14

NAME 3 BENEFITS OF PHYSICAL CONTROL METHODS

1. safer for the environment than potentially harmful chemicals
2. safer for the operator than chemicals
3. no risk of developing resistance

15

NAME 3 DRAWBACKS OF PHYSICAL CONTROL METHODS

1. knowledge of pest life cycle is required
2. physical barriers can make access to crops cumbersome
3. crop can be damaged by removing affected material
4. crop must be closely watched and action taken swiftly once pest identified

16

NAME 6 EXAMPLES HOW RISKS TO PEOPLE AND ENVIRONMENT BY CHEMICAL PESTICIDES CAN BE MINIMISED

1. read and follow instructions carefully
2. do not apply in adverse weather e.g. wind
3. do not apply in the middle of the day to avoid harming pollinators
4. wear appropriate personal protective equipment
5. avoid contaminating water courses
6. store in original container in lockable container
7. avoid pesticide where possible
8. identify pest correctly

17

EXPLAIN THE TERM CHEMICAL CONTROL OF PESTS AND DISEASES

Chemical control is the use of organic and inorganic compounds and products to kill pests and diseases

18

DESCRIBE HOW THE SELECTION OF PLANTS CAN HELP AVOID PLANT HEALTH PROBLEMS

1. selecting suitable plants for the soil, light, pH etc
2. buying certified seed and stock
3. inspecting plant material for pests and disease
4. select resistant cultivars
5. avoid pot bound plants
6. insure roots are healthy

19

NAME 2 PLANTS SUITED TO ACID SOIL

1. Pieris japonica
2. Camellia japonica
3. Rhododendron hirsutum

20

NAME 2 PLANTS SUITED TO WATERLOGGED SOIL

1. Caltha palustris
2. Myrica gale
3. Houttunyia cordata

21

NAME ONE EXAMPLE OF USE OF A RESISTANT CULTIVAR TO MINIMISE PLANT HEALTH PROBLEMS

1. Potato 'Sarpo' is resistant to potato eelworm and blight
2. Carrot 'Flyaway' is resistant to carrot rootfly

22

EXPLAIN THE TERM NATURAL BALANCE IN RELATION TO PEST AND PREDATOR

Natural balance occurs when both pest and predator are present.
An increase in pest numbers will lead to increase in predator numbers due to increase food supply
As pest numbers are reduced, food supply for predator is reduced and their number falls.
The pest and predator are in a natural balance

23

GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF HOW THE OVERUSE OF PESTICIDES AFFECTS PESTS AND DISEASES IN THE GARDEN

1. could kill beneficial organisms e.g. hoverfly or ladybird
2. could kill all the pest and affect natural predator/pest balance e.g. black bean aphid

24

GIVE AN EXAMPLE OF HOW THE OVERUSE OF FERTILISERS CAN AFFECT PESTS AND DISEASES IN THE GARDEN

Excess nitrogenous fertiliser use will lead to soft sappy growth which is prone to attack by peach potato aphids

25

GIVE AN EXAMPLE HOW THE OVERUSE OF HERBICIDES CAN AFFECT PESTS AND DISEASES IN THE GARDEN

1. weeds may become resistant e.g. to glyphosate
2. habitats and food for wildlife may be destroyed

26

DESCRIBE METHODS WHICH CAN MAINTAIN THE BALANCE OF PLANT PEST POPULATIONS

1. crop rotation
2. diversity of plants leading to diversity of pests
3. leave wildlife areas e.g. log piles
4. use biological controls e.g. Encarsia formosa to control glasshouse whitefly

27

NAME ONE PREY OF HOVERFLY AND ONE MEHTOD OF ENCOURAGING IT INTO THE GARDEN

Hoverfly is predator of peach potato aphid
It is encouraged by providing open centred flowers for pollination

28

NAME ONE PREY OF HEDGEHOG AND ONE METHOD OF ENCOURAGING THE HEDGEHOG INTO THE GARDEN

Prey: slugs, snails and beetles
Encouraged with habitat box under hedge or dense undergrowth

29

NAME ONE PREY OF BIRDS AND HOW THEY CAN BE ENCOURAGED INTO THE GARDEN

Prey: caterpillars, insects and snails
Encouraged by providing
- range of plants including those with fruits
- trees and shrubs for nests
- water
- food

30

NAME ONE PREY OF THE LADYBIRD AND HOW THEY CAN BE ENCOURAGED INTO THE GARDEN

Prey: black bean aphid
Encouraged by providing pollen in open centred flowers
and leaf litter for overwintering of adults

31

NAME ONE PREY OF FROGS AND HOW THEY CAN BE ENCOURAGED INTO THE GARDEN

Prey: moths, mosquitos, slugs and snails
Encouraged by ponds with sloping sides and wetland areas