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Flashcards in Major Study Deck Deck (151)
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1

To help young children hear, the sounds in a new word

have children clap the syllables as they hear and pronounce them.

2

5 stages of learning geometry

Visualization - recognize and name figures
Analysis - describe figures and objects
Informal deduction - classification of figures and objects
These are noticeable during elementary school
Deduction - involves writing proofs from definitions
Rigor - work in several geometrical systems.

3

1519

Alonso Alvarez de Pineda explores and maps the Texas coastline.

4

1528

Cabea de Vaca is among the first Europeans to explore the Texas interior

5

1682

Corpus Christi de la Isleta, the first of many Spanish missions, is established near El Paso.

6

1821

Stephen F. Austin establishes the first Anglo American colony, the Old Three Hundred.
Mexico gains independence from Spain.

7

1830

Mexico forbids the entry of further U.S. Settlers into Texas.

8

1835

The struggle for the Independence of Texas begins with the Battle of Gonzalez.

9

1836

The Texas Declaration of Independence is created and signed.
At the Battle of the Alamo, losses include David Crockett, James Bowie, William Travis
Sam Houston is elected first president of the Republic of Texas
Santa Anna is captured by General Sam Houston at the Battle of San Jacinto.
Rally cries "Remember the Alamo"

10

1839

The Texas Congress meets for the first time in Austin, the new capital of the Republic.

11

1845

Texas is admitted to the Union as the 28th state

12

1846

The current Lone Star flag is flown for the first time.
The Mexican-American War is fought over claims to the southern boundary of Texas

13

1850

Texas secedes from the Union and joins the Confederacy.

14

1870

Texas rejoins the Union.

15

1876

The current Texas State Constitution is ratified.

16

1901

Oil is discovered at the Spindletop oil field, initiating the modern petroleum industry.

17

1903

The Wright Brothers make thier first powered flight.

18

1906

William DeForest invents the vacuum tube.

19

1908

Henry Ford begins mass production of the automobile

20

1920

KDKA-Pittsburg becomes the first commercial radio station on the air.

21

1922

Insulin is created b Canadial researchers

22

1927

The first successful television takes place in New York

23

0928

Alexander Fleming discoveres Penicillin

24

1932

Wallace Carothers invents nylon

25

1935

Radar is developed by Robert Watson Watt

26

1936

Significant oil fields are discovered in Saudi Arabia.

27

1947

Researchers as Bell Labs invent the transistor.

28

A balanced reading program cosists of

Explicit, systematic phonics instructions with meaningful, connected reading of informative, engaging text. It includes five main areas of reading instruction: Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Fluency, Vocabulary, and Text Comprehension.

29

A child's ability to point to words during the initial stages of reading indicates...

The child's development of an awareness of words and of the correspondence between written and spoken langrage.

30

A 4th grade teacher asks a para to lead a small group discussion of a story students have read. To ensure the likel success of this activity, the teacher should...

Provide the para with a set of questions to help promote students' comprehension of the story.

31

A 4th grader demonstrates good decoding skills when reading leveled word lists, but often makes miscues and rarely self corrects when reading text passages. To help this student learn to self correct, the teacher should...

Encourage the student to think about whether each sentence makes sense as it is read.

32

a 4th grader who reads at the 7th grade level often seems bored and unchallenged. What would be most appropriate for the teacher to do to promote this student's reading development?

Help the student find books to read that are of high personal interest.

33

A fraction is used to represent prbability..

Number of times the successful event occurs/number of attempts that were made

34

Most effective informal reading assessment to check students' understanding of a reading passage is to...

Have the student stalk in their own words about what they have read.

35

A student has comprehension difficulty with content area reading. What should the teacher do to help?

Explicitly teach the student about the parts and format of various nonfiction texts and the specialized terminology and langrage the texts use.

36

A student has satisfactory decoding skills, but thestudent has weak comprehension when reading. What should the teacher do to help?

Explicitly teach the student how to apply various comprehension strategies as the student reads.

37

A 3rd grade teacher makes a practice of reading aloud to students from high-interest books that are above the students independent reading level. Why do this?

To stimulate students interest in literature and to introduce new vocabulare words and concepts to expand their knowledge of word meanings.

38

Accelerated Erosion

Constitues a major source of topographic change.

39

Acrostic poem

A poem where the first letter of each line spellls a word.

40

Affix

A prefix or sufix

41

Age of Exploration

The 15th &16th centuries.

42

Alliteration

Repeated consonant sounds occuring at the beginning of words or within words; e.g., big, blue, bear

43

Alonso Alverez de Pineda

Sailed along the Gulf coast in 1519 in search of a strait to the Pacific Ocean.

44

Alphabetic Knowledge

Knowledge of letter names and shapes; acquired in a sequence that begins with letter names, then letter shapes, and finally letter sounds. Instruction should be informal, but planned and should include activities in which children have many opportunities to see, play with, and compare letters and learn to identify, name and write both upper case and lower case versions.

45

Alphabetic Principle

An understanding that letters and letter patterns represent the sounds of spoken words.

46

An appropriate activity to 1st graders listening comprehension skills

To have them follow short (3 step) directions presented only.

47

An effective way to promote the oral development of a 3 yr old preschooler is to...

Verbally lable and describe events in the child's world.

48

Analyzing what an unfamiliar words' placement in a sentence suggests about the meaning of the word in an example of...

Using syntactic clues.

49

Anaphora

The use of one word in place of another word

50

Anna Mary "Grandma" Moses

American Artist

51

Attribute blocks

Ideal for working on congruence and similarity.

52

Automaticity

Accurate, speedy word recognition; is necessary, but not sufficient, for fluency development.

53

Ballad

Narrative poem (tells a story) set to music

54

Bar graphs

Use horizontal or vertical bars to contrast quantities

55

Barbara Jordan

First African-American woman from a southern state to serve in Congress when she was elected to the House of Representatives in 1973.

56

Big Books

Large oversized books used in shared reading, usually at the emergent reading level.

57

Biography/Autobiography

Non-fiction;, Contains factual information about a real person.

58

Blending

Combining individual phonemes to form words or combining onsets and rimes to make syllables, the combining syllables to make words.

59

Books of True Experience

Nonfiction; True stories about real events from a person's life or parts of his/her life.

60

Caddos

Coastal Plains, Main crop was corn, but grew other crops, were hunters and fishers, built houses that were relatively permanent - built of cedar frames, worshiped in large wooden temples. The Caddo word for friends or allies is Tejas which is where the name of our state is derived.

61

Cause and effect

Lists one or more causes and the resulting effect or effects.

62

Children learn letter shapes by...

PLaying with blocks, plastic letters, and alphabet blocks.

63

Choral Reading

Takes place when a group

64

Cinquain

A short, unrhymed poem consiting of 22 syllables distributed as 2, 4, 6, 8, 2 in 5 lines.

65

Circle graphs or pies charts

Represent the relationship that each part has to be whole.

66

Civics

Study of how society maintains order through government institutions and the political process.

67

Cloze Procedure

An assessment method used to determine readability of a text that involves deleting words from the text and leaving blank spaces.

68

Coahuiltecans

On the Coastal Plains, hunters and gatherers who lived in huts but often moved in search of food.

69

Comparison/contrast

Explain how two or more things are alike and/or how they are different.

70

Comprehension strategies of skilled readers.

Activating and using background knowledge, generaating and asking questions making inferences, predictions, summarizing, visualizations

71

Concepts of print

Print represents spoken language; print is directiona from left to right and top to bottom; books are read from front to back; the strings of letters separated by spaces in text are words, and individual letters are different from words; sentences begin with capital letters and end with periods, etc....

72

Congruent Figures

Have exactly the same size.

73

Consonant Blend

Consists of two or more consonants bonded together in such a way that each is heard like the blend of b and l in the word blend.

74

Consonant Diagraph

Consists of two consonants that together repres

75

Content Literacy

Used to describe the ability to use written texts as souces of information about a given topic or area.

76

Context clues are

Clues to the meaning of a word contained in the text that surround it. These clues include definitions, examples, and restatements. Teaching students strategies for identifying and using context clues is an important technique for vocabulary development.

77

Continental Drift

Change in the positions of continents over long periods of time.

78

Contractions

Reductions

79

Counting Bars

Illustrats congruence and simularity.

80

Cueing Systems

ular,Cues used by the reader to draw on or gain meaning from text. Tehy include: Structural analysis - word identification skill that focuses on word parts prefixes, root words, suffixes, inflectional endings (e.g., -s, -es, -ed, -ing, -er, and -est), and derivational endings (e.g., -y, -ly, -ial, -ic). Semantic - using background knowledge/experience with word meanings. Syntactic - word order and knowledge of language patterns. Graphophonic - using knowledge of letters and sounds.

81

Cultural Geography

Focuses on the relationships between people and their physical environments.

82

Decodable Text

Text in which most of the words are made up of sound-letter relationships that have been taught, but that contain hight-frequency irregular, and story words to make them sound natural.

83

Decoding

The process of translating written words using letter-sound correspondence and blending the sounds into words.

84

Diamante

A 7 lined poem set up in a diamond shape.

85

Dilations

Expansions

86

Diphthong

A vowel pair in which the sound glides from one vowel to the other like ou, oy, ou, and ow in foil, boy, out, and cow. or like oe in shoe.

87

Directed Reading Activity (DRA)

Teacher activates and develops schematat by linking the topic of the text to students own experiences or finding ways to get students interested in an unfamiliar topic. (a teacher directed activity)

88

Directed Reading Thinking Activity

A guided reading activity in which the teacher breaks the text into shorter segments, and next facilitates a discussion on the key concepts related to the text topic and thereafter leads the predictions, discussing to refine and clarigy predictions; and then formulating new predictions about the remainder o the text; this process is repeated until the reading of the text is completed.

89

Drama

A fictional play; plot is carried by the dialogue.

90

Dynamics

How loud or soft musics is played or sang.

91

Early Blending actiities should use words that begin with....

Contunuoous consonants (e.g., f,l,m.r,s) because these sounds are easy to hear and can be blended without distortion. The children should "stretch out" and connect the sounds in the word ( e.g., sssssaaaatttt, rather than /s/,- /a/ - /t/)

92

Emergent Literacy

Children's beliefs about and experiences with reading and writing prior to formal instruction.

93

Environmental Printing

Written text that's observable in one's surroundings, such as signs, labels, stickers, billboards, and brand names.

94

Erosion

Breaking down and removal of physical material

95

Evaluatie Comprehension

Ability to use critical thinking skills, logical analysis, and aesthetic considerations to evaluate text.

96

Expository Texts

Texts that provide factural information and explanations.

97

Exository Writing

A type of oral or written discourse that is used to explain, describe, give information or inform

98

Expressive Language Skills

Speaking and writing

99

Fable

Fiction; short brief stories that teach a lesson or moral.

100

Fantasy/Science Fiction

Fiction;plots contain some elements that could not happen in the world as we know it today.

101

First Spanish missions were established to?

Strenghten Spains claim

102

Flat Character

Not fully developed; we only know one side of the character.

103

Fluency stage

Children become more familiar with written language, an their decoding becomes more automatic as a result of learning more sight words.

104

Fluent reading

Ability to read quickly, accurately, smoothly, and with expression (ability to make use of prosodic cues, is a dimension of oral reading)

105

Folklore

The songs, stories, myths, and proverbs of people or "folk" as handed down by word of mouth.

106

Folktales

Fiction; stories are not intended to be accerpted as true, larger than life, characters and very unusual happenings.

107

For helping preschool children listen attentively...

Establish a cueing system that signals that it is time to listen and use it routinely.

108

Form

Three dimensional quality of objexts: depth, height and width

109

Frustration Reading Level

Student pronounces less that 50% of the words correctly and answers less than 70% questions correctly

110

Geoboards

Provide tactile experience of creating right triangles and polygons. Pins and rubbler bands

111

Geography

The study of Earth and its inhabitants

112

Graphemes

The letters that spell the sounds in a word. e.g., in the word cat, the sound /k/ is represented by the grapheme (letter) c.

113

Graphic Organizer

Visual representation of textual content

114

Graphophonic Cues

Cues based on letter sound correspondence that help readers decode text and determin its meaning. When readers are using letter sounds and their position in words to help decode a word.

115

Guided reading

Instruction that supports and extends the reading process.

116

Haiku

A unrhymed Japanese verse consisting of 3 unrhymed lines of 5,7, and 5 syllables or 17 syllables in all.

117

Harmony

Accompainment of a song

118

Having 1st graders write simple words at the same time they are first learning to recognize words in print is most likely to promote their reading development by...

Reinforcing their knowledge of the alphabetic principle

119

Health-Related fitness

Promote for the development of better health now and in the future.

120

Helen Keller

American author

121

Historical Fiction

Fiction; based on real historical events

122

Historical Probability

Based upon data accumulated over time

123

How can a teacher best identify a student's word identification stratategies?

Ask the student to explain how he/she figured out the word`

124

How long should phonics be taught?

According to the National Reading Panel approximately two years is sufficient in the primary grades.

125

How can a teacher help students learn the importance of punctuation?

Have them read a passage with no punctuation

126

History

Study of the material record of the past.

127

Hue

Name of the color

128

When evaluating the suitability of children's book for the classroom, what is the most important to consider first?

How these reading material will address the grade level reading TEKS.

129

Independent Reading Level

Student pronounces 95% or more of word correctly and shows more than 90% accuracy in comprehension

130

Inferential comprehension

Being able to draw conclusion by reading "between the lines". Understanding of information that isn't explicitly given, but rather implied in a written passage.

131

Polygon

A simple closed curve that is made of line segments.

132

Triangle

3 sides

133

Quadrilateral

Polygon with 4 sides

134

Pentagon

5 sides

135

Hexagon

6 Sides

136

Octagon

8 sides

137

Decagon

10 sides

138

Parallelogram

Opposite sides are parallel and congruent

139

Trapezoid

One pair of sides that are parallel

140

Rhombus

4 congruent sides

141

Rectangle

4 right angles

142

Initial Reading Stage

Sound out many of the words they read through phonic analysis. Also known as the decoding stage because they focus on decoding of individual words.

143

Inquiry Teaching

When teachers ask and then help students answer questions by proposing hypotheses, gathering and evaluation data, and generating conclusions. This promotes an understanding of the scientific method.

144

Instructional Reading Level

Student pronounces 90-94% of the words correctly & 70-89% of the quections correctly.

145

Intonation

Patterns of Pitch that contribute to the meanings of phrases and sentences

146

Invented or temporary spelling

Helps to increase phonemic awareness and increases knowledge of spelling patterns.

147

Irregular/ high frequency words

Words that appear often in printed English (e,g,, a, the, in, to, no, you, for), but are not readily decodable in the early stages of reading instruction.

148

Leveled Books

Books that have been sorted according to level of difficulty so that children and teachers can select books at the child's appropriate reading level.

149

Literacy develoments instruction for ELL's should...

Value and build upon children's home languages.

150

Literal comprehension

Refers to the understanding of information that is explicitly stated in written passage (main idea, sequence of events, knowledge of vocabulary)

151

Metacognition

Thinking about thinking. Awareness of mental contents and processes.