Flashcards in Major Study Deck Deck (151)
To help young children hear, the sounds in a new word
have children clap the syllables as they hear and pronounce them.
5 stages of learning geometry
Visualization - recognize and name figures
Analysis - describe figures and objects
Informal deduction - classification of figures and objects
These are noticeable during elementary school
Deduction - involves writing proofs from definitions
Rigor - work in several geometrical systems.
Alonso Alvarez de Pineda explores and maps the Texas coastline.
Cabea de Vaca is among the first Europeans to explore the Texas interior
Corpus Christi de la Isleta, the first of many Spanish missions, is established near El Paso.
Stephen F. Austin establishes the first Anglo American colony, the Old Three Hundred.
Mexico gains independence from Spain.
Mexico forbids the entry of further U.S. Settlers into Texas.
The struggle for the Independence of Texas begins with the Battle of Gonzalez.
The Texas Declaration of Independence is created and signed.
At the Battle of the Alamo, losses include David Crockett, James Bowie, William Travis
Sam Houston is elected first president of the Republic of Texas
Santa Anna is captured by General Sam Houston at the Battle of San Jacinto.
Rally cries "Remember the Alamo"
The Texas Congress meets for the first time in Austin, the new capital of the Republic.
Texas is admitted to the Union as the 28th state
The current Lone Star flag is flown for the first time.
The Mexican-American War is fought over claims to the southern boundary of Texas
Texas secedes from the Union and joins the Confederacy.
Texas rejoins the Union.
The current Texas State Constitution is ratified.
Oil is discovered at the Spindletop oil field, initiating the modern petroleum industry.
The Wright Brothers make thier first powered flight.
William DeForest invents the vacuum tube.
Henry Ford begins mass production of the automobile
KDKA-Pittsburg becomes the first commercial radio station on the air.
Insulin is created b Canadial researchers
The first successful television takes place in New York
Alexander Fleming discoveres Penicillin
Wallace Carothers invents nylon
Radar is developed by Robert Watson Watt
Significant oil fields are discovered in Saudi Arabia.
Researchers as Bell Labs invent the transistor.
A balanced reading program cosists of
Explicit, systematic phonics instructions with meaningful, connected reading of informative, engaging text. It includes five main areas of reading instruction: Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Fluency, Vocabulary, and Text Comprehension.
A child's ability to point to words during the initial stages of reading indicates...
The child's development of an awareness of words and of the correspondence between written and spoken langrage.
A 4th grade teacher asks a para to lead a small group discussion of a story students have read. To ensure the likel success of this activity, the teacher should...
Provide the para with a set of questions to help promote students' comprehension of the story.
A 4th grader demonstrates good decoding skills when reading leveled word lists, but often makes miscues and rarely self corrects when reading text passages. To help this student learn to self correct, the teacher should...
Encourage the student to think about whether each sentence makes sense as it is read.
a 4th grader who reads at the 7th grade level often seems bored and unchallenged. What would be most appropriate for the teacher to do to promote this student's reading development?
Help the student find books to read that are of high personal interest.
A fraction is used to represent prbability..
Number of times the successful event occurs/number of attempts that were made
Most effective informal reading assessment to check students' understanding of a reading passage is to...
Have the student stalk in their own words about what they have read.
A student has comprehension difficulty with content area reading. What should the teacher do to help?
Explicitly teach the student about the parts and format of various nonfiction texts and the specialized terminology and langrage the texts use.
A student has satisfactory decoding skills, but thestudent has weak comprehension when reading. What should the teacher do to help?
Explicitly teach the student how to apply various comprehension strategies as the student reads.
A 3rd grade teacher makes a practice of reading aloud to students from high-interest books that are above the students independent reading level. Why do this?
To stimulate students interest in literature and to introduce new vocabulare words and concepts to expand their knowledge of word meanings.
Constitues a major source of topographic change.
A poem where the first letter of each line spellls a word.
A prefix or sufix
Age of Exploration
The 15th &16th centuries.
Repeated consonant sounds occuring at the beginning of words or within words; e.g., big, blue, bear
Alonso Alverez de Pineda
Sailed along the Gulf coast in 1519 in search of a strait to the Pacific Ocean.
Knowledge of letter names and shapes; acquired in a sequence that begins with letter names, then letter shapes, and finally letter sounds. Instruction should be informal, but planned and should include activities in which children have many opportunities to see, play with, and compare letters and learn to identify, name and write both upper case and lower case versions.
An understanding that letters and letter patterns represent the sounds of spoken words.
An appropriate activity to 1st graders listening comprehension skills
To have them follow short (3 step) directions presented only.
An effective way to promote the oral development of a 3 yr old preschooler is to...
Verbally lable and describe events in the child's world.
Analyzing what an unfamiliar words' placement in a sentence suggests about the meaning of the word in an example of...
Using syntactic clues.
The use of one word in place of another word
Anna Mary "Grandma" Moses
Ideal for working on congruence and similarity.
Accurate, speedy word recognition; is necessary, but not sufficient, for fluency development.
Narrative poem (tells a story) set to music
Use horizontal or vertical bars to contrast quantities
First African-American woman from a southern state to serve in Congress when she was elected to the House of Representatives in 1973.
Large oversized books used in shared reading, usually at the emergent reading level.
Non-fiction;, Contains factual information about a real person.
Combining individual phonemes to form words or combining onsets and rimes to make syllables, the combining syllables to make words.
Books of True Experience
Nonfiction; True stories about real events from a person's life or parts of his/her life.
Coastal Plains, Main crop was corn, but grew other crops, were hunters and fishers, built houses that were relatively permanent - built of cedar frames, worshiped in large wooden temples. The Caddo word for friends or allies is Tejas which is where the name of our state is derived.
Cause and effect
Lists one or more causes and the resulting effect or effects.
Children learn letter shapes by...
PLaying with blocks, plastic letters, and alphabet blocks.
Takes place when a group
A short, unrhymed poem consiting of 22 syllables distributed as 2, 4, 6, 8, 2 in 5 lines.
Circle graphs or pies charts
Represent the relationship that each part has to be whole.
Study of how society maintains order through government institutions and the political process.
An assessment method used to determine readability of a text that involves deleting words from the text and leaving blank spaces.
On the Coastal Plains, hunters and gatherers who lived in huts but often moved in search of food.
Explain how two or more things are alike and/or how they are different.
Comprehension strategies of skilled readers.
Activating and using background knowledge, generaating and asking questions making inferences, predictions, summarizing, visualizations
Concepts of print
Print represents spoken language; print is directiona from left to right and top to bottom; books are read from front to back; the strings of letters separated by spaces in text are words, and individual letters are different from words; sentences begin with capital letters and end with periods, etc....
Have exactly the same size.
Consists of two or more consonants bonded together in such a way that each is heard like the blend of b and l in the word blend.
Consists of two consonants that together repres
Used to describe the ability to use written texts as souces of information about a given topic or area.
Context clues are
Clues to the meaning of a word contained in the text that surround it. These clues include definitions, examples, and restatements. Teaching students strategies for identifying and using context clues is an important technique for vocabulary development.
Change in the positions of continents over long periods of time.
Illustrats congruence and simularity.
ular,Cues used by the reader to draw on or gain meaning from text. Tehy include: Structural analysis - word identification skill that focuses on word parts prefixes, root words, suffixes, inflectional endings (e.g., -s, -es, -ed, -ing, -er, and -est), and derivational endings (e.g., -y, -ly, -ial, -ic). Semantic - using background knowledge/experience with word meanings. Syntactic - word order and knowledge of language patterns. Graphophonic - using knowledge of letters and sounds.
Focuses on the relationships between people and their physical environments.
Text in which most of the words are made up of sound-letter relationships that have been taught, but that contain hight-frequency irregular, and story words to make them sound natural.
The process of translating written words using letter-sound correspondence and blending the sounds into words.
A 7 lined poem set up in a diamond shape.
A vowel pair in which the sound glides from one vowel to the other like ou, oy, ou, and ow in foil, boy, out, and cow. or like oe in shoe.
Directed Reading Activity (DRA)
Teacher activates and develops schematat by linking the topic of the text to students own experiences or finding ways to get students interested in an unfamiliar topic. (a teacher directed activity)
Directed Reading Thinking Activity
A guided reading activity in which the teacher breaks the text into shorter segments, and next facilitates a discussion on the key concepts related to the text topic and thereafter leads the predictions, discussing to refine and clarigy predictions; and then formulating new predictions about the remainder o the text; this process is repeated until the reading of the text is completed.
A fictional play; plot is carried by the dialogue.
How loud or soft musics is played or sang.
Early Blending actiities should use words that begin with....
Contunuoous consonants (e.g., f,l,m.r,s) because these sounds are easy to hear and can be blended without distortion. The children should "stretch out" and connect the sounds in the word ( e.g., sssssaaaatttt, rather than /s/,- /a/ - /t/)
Children's beliefs about and experiences with reading and writing prior to formal instruction.
Written text that's observable in one's surroundings, such as signs, labels, stickers, billboards, and brand names.
Breaking down and removal of physical material
Ability to use critical thinking skills, logical analysis, and aesthetic considerations to evaluate text.
Texts that provide factural information and explanations.
A type of oral or written discourse that is used to explain, describe, give information or inform
Expressive Language Skills
Speaking and writing
Fiction; short brief stories that teach a lesson or moral.
Fiction;plots contain some elements that could not happen in the world as we know it today.
First Spanish missions were established to?
Strenghten Spains claim
Not fully developed; we only know one side of the character.
Children become more familiar with written language, an their decoding becomes more automatic as a result of learning more sight words.
Ability to read quickly, accurately, smoothly, and with expression (ability to make use of prosodic cues, is a dimension of oral reading)
The songs, stories, myths, and proverbs of people or "folk" as handed down by word of mouth.
Fiction; stories are not intended to be accerpted as true, larger than life, characters and very unusual happenings.
For helping preschool children listen attentively...
Establish a cueing system that signals that it is time to listen and use it routinely.
Three dimensional quality of objexts: depth, height and width
Frustration Reading Level
Student pronounces less that 50% of the words correctly and answers less than 70% questions correctly
Provide tactile experience of creating right triangles and polygons. Pins and rubbler bands
The study of Earth and its inhabitants
The letters that spell the sounds in a word. e.g., in the word cat, the sound /k/ is represented by the grapheme (letter) c.
Visual representation of textual content
Cues based on letter sound correspondence that help readers decode text and determin its meaning. When readers are using letter sounds and their position in words to help decode a word.
Instruction that supports and extends the reading process.
A unrhymed Japanese verse consisting of 3 unrhymed lines of 5,7, and 5 syllables or 17 syllables in all.
Accompainment of a song
Having 1st graders write simple words at the same time they are first learning to recognize words in print is most likely to promote their reading development by...
Reinforcing their knowledge of the alphabetic principle
Promote for the development of better health now and in the future.
Fiction; based on real historical events
Based upon data accumulated over time
How can a teacher best identify a student's word identification stratategies?
Ask the student to explain how he/she figured out the word`
How long should phonics be taught?
According to the National Reading Panel approximately two years is sufficient in the primary grades.
How can a teacher help students learn the importance of punctuation?
Have them read a passage with no punctuation
Study of the material record of the past.
Name of the color
When evaluating the suitability of children's book for the classroom, what is the most important to consider first?
How these reading material will address the grade level reading TEKS.
Independent Reading Level
Student pronounces 95% or more of word correctly and shows more than 90% accuracy in comprehension
Being able to draw conclusion by reading "between the lines". Understanding of information that isn't explicitly given, but rather implied in a written passage.
A simple closed curve that is made of line segments.
Polygon with 4 sides
Opposite sides are parallel and congruent
One pair of sides that are parallel
4 congruent sides
4 right angles
Initial Reading Stage
Sound out many of the words they read through phonic analysis. Also known as the decoding stage because they focus on decoding of individual words.
When teachers ask and then help students answer questions by proposing hypotheses, gathering and evaluation data, and generating conclusions. This promotes an understanding of the scientific method.
Instructional Reading Level
Student pronounces 90-94% of the words correctly & 70-89% of the quections correctly.
Patterns of Pitch that contribute to the meanings of phrases and sentences
Invented or temporary spelling
Helps to increase phonemic awareness and increases knowledge of spelling patterns.
Irregular/ high frequency words
Words that appear often in printed English (e,g,, a, the, in, to, no, you, for), but are not readily decodable in the early stages of reading instruction.
Books that have been sorted according to level of difficulty so that children and teachers can select books at the child's appropriate reading level.
Literacy develoments instruction for ELL's should...
Value and build upon children's home languages.
Refers to the understanding of information that is explicitly stated in written passage (main idea, sequence of events, knowledge of vocabulary)