Male Genital System Flashcards Preview

Path Exam 3 > Male Genital System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Male Genital System Deck (78):
1

which bacteria can cause cystitis?

E. coli, Proteus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter

2

which fungus can cause cystitis?

Candida

3

which parasite can cause cystitis?

S. hematobium

4

what are iatrogenic causes of cystitis?

chemotherapy, radiation (hemorrhagic cystitis)

5

list predisposing factors for cystitis

  • more common in female (short urethra)
  • diabetes mellitus
  • instrumentation
    • catheter, cystoscopy
  • bladder calculi
  • bladder outlet obstruction 
    • male = BPH 

6

name clinical features of cystitis

  • urinary frequency
  • dysuria = pain or burning micturition
  • pain over bladder/suprapubic
  • fever and chills
  • microhematuria

7

describe what is seen on pathological exam in chronic interstitial cystitis

  • chronic inflammation
  • mast cells

8

the condition seen in the image is associated with mutations in ___, ___ and ___ genes

urothelial carcinoma is associated with mutations in p53, Rb and p16 genes

9

the greatest risk factor for the condition seen in the image is ___

the greatest risk factor for the condition seen in the image is SMOKING

10

which drugs are associated risk factors for the condition in the image?

analgesic abuse (phenacetin)

cyclophosphamide

11

which chemicals are associated risk factors for the condition in the image?

naphthylamine

rubber products

12

infection with ___ is a risk factor for the ____ type of the condition seen in the image

infection with Schistosomiasis is a risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder (NOT urothelial)

13

describe the presentation of the condition seen in the image

  • painless hematuria 
  • dysuria
  • urgency & frequency
  • flank pain

14

in the papillary form of the condition in the image, it projects into ____ and causes ___ and therefore the patient presents earlier

in the papillary form of the condition in the image, it projects into the lumen of the bladder and causes obstructive symptoms and therefore the patient presents earlier

15

the flat type of the condition seen in the image is a ___ grade tumor that presents ___ and has a ____ prognosis because it ____

the flat type of the condition seen in the image is a high-grade tumor that presents late and has a poor prognosis because it invades the bladder wall

16

the squamous cell type of the condition seen in the image is associated with ___ and ___

the squamous cell type of the condition seen in the image is associated mainly with S. hematobium and bladder stones

17

a vignette with an "Egyptian immigrant" who has the condition seen in the image. Diagnosis and etiology?

 

squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder caused by S. hematobium (parasite)

18

describe clinical features of prostatitis

  • dysuria, frequency, urgency
  • low back/pelvic or genital pain
  • fever, chills and leukocytosis
  • loss of sex drive
  • painful erections/ejaculation

19

describe the findings of a DRE in prostatitis

enlarged, tender prostate

20

describe what is seen in the image

21

describe the etiology of the condition seen in the image

testosterone → DHT by 5-alpha reductase (found in stromal cells) causes hyperplasia of stroma & glands

affects central/periurethral & transitional zones

22

the condition seen in the image affects ___ and ___ zones

it does NOT affect the ___ zone which is affected by ____ only

the condition seen in the image affects central/periurethral and transitional zones

it does NOT affect the peripheral zone which is affected by prostate cancer only

23

____ is the most important predisposing factor for the condition seen in the image

testosterone is the most important predisposing factor for the condition seen in the image

24

list the signs and symptoms of the condition seen in the image

  • urethral compression:
    • difficulty starting & stopping urination
    • frequency/dribbling
    • nocturia. dysuria

25

the histology of the condition seen in the image is hyperplasia of ___ and ___  (torturous, dilated/distended)

with 2 layers: inner ___ and outer ____

the histology of the condition seen in the image is hyperplasia of stroma and glands (torturous, dilated/distended)

with 2 layers: inner columnar and outer flattened basal cells

26

on DRE of the condition seen in the image, what is seen?

uniformly enlarged, NOT nodular

27

the initial complication of the condition seen in the image is ___; what else can this cause?

the initial complication of the condition seen in the image is obstruction

back up of urine → bilateral hydroureters/hydronephrosis → chronic renal failure → increased serum calcium → recurrent kidney & bladder stones → infections and acute urinary retention

28

list 2 potential treatments for the condition seen in the image

  • TURP = transurethral resection
  • 5-alpha reductase inhibitors 

29

____ is the most common cancer in men and 2nd most common cancer related cause of death in men >50 yrs

prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and 2nd most common cancer-related cause of death in men >50 yrs

30

list the risk factors for the condition seen in the image

  • AGE (>65)
  • African Americans
  • high fat diet
  • HPC1 gene
  • RNASEL gene
  • family history

31

the condition seen in the image affects the ___ zone and therefore presents late because it is further away from ____

the condition seen in the image affects the peripheral zone and therefore presents late because it is further away from the urethra

32

the condition associated with the image metastasizes to ___ via the ____ and can cause ___ pain

the condition seen in the image metastasizes to CNS via the venous plexus of Batson and can cause back pain

33

describe the presentation of the condition seen in the image

50% asymptomatic

  • microscopic hematuria
  • lower back pain (due to osteoblastic lesions seen in late stage/metas.)
  • weight loss
  • urinary symptoms
    • dysuria
    • weak, interrupted urine flow

34

describe DRE findings in the condition seen in the image

this is compared to BPH, where the prostate is ___

prostate is hard, nordular & irregularly enlarged

this is compared to BPH, where the prostate is uniformly enlarged and NOT nodular

35

describe what is seen on biopsy of the condition associated with the image

____ cells → ____ cells with atypia and NO ____ cells

biopsy: malignant glands back to back with little stroma

lined by SINGLE layer of cuboidal epithelial cells w/ atypia 

columnar cells → cuboidal cells with atypia and NO flattened basal cells

36

PSA is normally produced by _____

what is a normal PSA value?

PSA is normally produced by prostatic glandular epithelium

normal = <4 ng/mL

high = >10 ng/mL

37

a complication of the condition seen in the image is ____

a complication of the condition seen in the image is  urethral stricture

38

list conditions where PSA is high

  • cancer
  • BPH
  • prostatitis, infarction
  • ejaculation
  • extensive exercise

39

describe the image

40

the condition seen in the image is described as failure of ____

the condition seen in the image is described as failure of a testis to descend completely into its normal position within the scrotum

41

the most common location of the condition seen in the image is ____, ____, ____

the most common location of the condition seen in the image is upper scrotal, inguinal canal, abdominal

42

an ____ is done to correct the condition in the image:

before 2 years old to reduce ___

before 5 years old to reduce ____

an orchiopexy is done to correct the condition in the image:

before 2 years old to reduce infertility

before 5 years old to reduce testicular cancer/germ cell tumors

43

in the histology of the condition seen in the image, there is atrophied ____ due to increased ____ which ultimately affects the ____ causing NO ____

in the histology of the condition seen in the image, there is atrophied seminiferous tubules due to increased temperature outside of scrotum which ultimately affects the Sertoli cells causing NO spermatogenesis

44

in the condition seen in the image; 

____ is normal (but still infertile b/c no ___ cells)

___ is low and ____ is high

LH and testosterone are normal (but still infertile b/c no Sertoli cells)

inhibin is low and FSH is high

45

complications of the condition seen in the image are ___ and ___

complications of the condition seen in the image are infertility and increased risk of germ cell tumors

46

the etiology of epididymo-orchitis in children is ____

the etiology of epididymo -orchitis in children is G-ve bacilli

47

the etiology of epididymo-orchitis in males <35 years is ____

the etiology of epididymo -orchitis in males <35 years is: 

STD, caused by Gonorrhea or C. trachomatis

48

the etiology of epididymo-orchitis in males >35 years is ____

the etiology of epididymo -orchitis in males >35 years is:

UTI, caused by E. coli or Pseudomonas

49

list causes of pre-testicular male infertility

hypopituitarism, estrogen excess

50

list causes of testicular male infertility

agonadism, atrophy, germ cell aplasia, maturation arrest

51

list causes of post-testicular male infertility

blood/lymph obstruction, infections, immotile cilia syndrome (Kartgener's)

52

list risk factors for testicular tumors

  • cryptorchidism = biggest risk factor
  • isochromosome 12p
    • duplicate of the P arm
  • testicular dysgenesis (Klinfelter's syndrome)
  • radiation

53

list the testicular tumors associated with ages:

infant/children

15-30

30-50

>60 yrs

infant/children = teratomas & yolk sac

15-30 = mixed germ cell tumor

30-50 = seminoma

>60 yrs = lymphomas

54

the condition seen in the image is well circumscribed with no ___ & ___ and is therefore painless

the condition seen in the image is well circumscribed with no hemorrhage & necrosis and is therefore painless

55

the condition seen in the image spreads via ___, especially to which 2 nodes?

the condition seen in the image spreads via lymphatics, especially to the para-aortic and iliac lymph nodes

56

the histology of the condition in the image would have a ____ appearance with sheets of ___ with __ and ____ infiltrate

the histology of the condition in the image would have a fried egg appearance with sheets of uniform cells with delicate septa and lymphocytic infiltrate

57

___ is a tumor marker for the condition seen in the image with no increase in serum ___ or ____

LDH is a tumor marker for the condition seen in the image with no increase in serum HCG or AFP

58

describe treatments for the condition seen in the image

  • treatment:
    • excisional biopsy = allows for diagnosis and treatment
    • radiosensitive, so do radiotherapy
    • does NOT cause infertility

59

describe the composition of the condition seen in the image

seminiferous (seminoma) + non-seminiferous tubules (choriocarcinoma, embryonal, teratoma, yolk sac) 

therefore, all 5 germ cells are seen

60

the condition seen in the image is a solid, (unilateral or bilateral?) tumor with ____ and ____

the condition seen in the image is a solid, unilateral tumor with hemorrhage and necrosis

61

since the condition in the image is partly seminoma, there would be an increase in ____

since the condition in the image is partly seminoma, there would be an increase in LDH

62

since the condition in the image is partly choriocarcinoma, there would be an increase in ____ which is secreted by _____

since the condition in the image is partly choriocarcinoma, there would be an increase in B-hCG = "male pregnancy" (secreted by syncytiotrophoblasts)

63

since the condition in the image is partly yolk sac, there would be an increase in ____ bodies, as well as in increase in serum ___

since the condition in the image is partly yolk sac, there would be an increase in Schiller-Duval bodies (primitive glomeruli) as well as an increase in serum AFP, A1AT

64

since the condition in the image is partly embryonal, ____ would be seen on histology

since the condition in the image is partly embryonal, small, round blue cells in a bizarre arrangement would be seen on histology

65

urethral opening on the ventral surface of penis = ___

urethral opening on the dorsal surface of penis = ___

urethral opening on the ventral surface of penis = hypospadias

urethral opening on the dorsal surface of penis = epispadias

66

phimosis is due to ____ or ____

phimosis is due to development anomalies or infection and scarring of the preputial ring

67

describe paraphimosis

when a phimotic prepuce is forcibly retracted over the glans penis, causing marked constriction and swelling

painful, urethral constrictions, UTIs

68

list the penile carcinoma in-situ

all are due to ____

all are due to HPV infection

 

69

the etiology of the condition seen in the image is ____

the etiology of the condition seen in the image is HPV 16 & 18

integrates into host chromosome → E6 and E7 inactivate p53 and Rb (respectively)

70

list risk factors for the condition seen in the image

  • multiple sexual partners
  • smoking
  • smegma (dirty lubricating fluid in uncircumscribed males)

71

the condition seen in the image spreads via ____

the condition seen in the image spreads via lymph

72

describe the histology of the condition seen in the image

malignant squamous cells with keratin pearls

73

describe a complication of the condition seen in the image

skin is breached → secondary bacterial infxn (S. aureus) → epididymo-orchitis

74

hematocele is blood in the ___ caused by ____

hematocele is blood in the tunica vaginalis caused by trauma

75

a hydrocele is accumulation of fluid in ____

a hydrocele is accumulation of fluid in the tunica

76

varicocele is ____ 

varicocele is  dilatation of congested blood vessels in spermatic cord

77

spermatocele is ____

spermatocele is dilatation of epididymis with semen

78

scrotal cancer is commonly seen in ____ and is associated with ____

scrotal cancer is commonly seen in chimney sweepers and is associated with coal tar