Male Genital System Flashcards Preview

.Path Exam 3 > Male Genital System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Male Genital System Deck (78):
1

which bacteria can cause cystitis?

E. coli, Proteus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter

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2

which fungus can cause cystitis?

Candida

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3

which parasite can cause cystitis?

S. hematobium

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4

what are iatrogenic causes of cystitis?

chemotherapy, radiation (hemorrhagic cystitis)

5

list predisposing factors for cystitis

  • more common in female (short urethra)
  • diabetes mellitus
  • instrumentation
    • catheter, cystoscopy
  • bladder calculi
  • bladder outlet obstruction 
    • male = BPH 

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6

name clinical features of cystitis

  • urinary frequency
  • dysuria = pain or burning micturition
  • pain over bladder/suprapubic
  • fever and chills
  • microhematuria

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7

describe what is seen on pathological exam in chronic interstitial cystitis

  • chronic inflammation
  • mast cells

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8

the condition seen in the image is associated with mutations in ___, ___ and ___ genes

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urothelial carcinoma is associated with mutations in p53, Rb and p16 genes

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9

the greatest risk factor for the condition seen in the image is ___

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the greatest risk factor for the condition seen in the image is SMOKING

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10

which drugs are associated risk factors for the condition in the image?

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analgesic abuse (phenacetin)

cyclophosphamide

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11

which chemicals are associated risk factors for the condition in the image?

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naphthylamine

rubber products

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12

infection with ___ is a risk factor for the ____ type of the condition seen in the image

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infection with Schistosomiasis is a risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder (NOT urothelial)

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13

describe the presentation of the condition seen in the image

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  • painless hematuria 
  • dysuria
  • urgency & frequency
  • flank pain

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14

in the papillary form of the condition in the image, it projects into ____ and causes ___ and therefore the patient presents earlier

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in the papillary form of the condition in the image, it projects into the lumen of the bladder and causes obstructive symptoms and therefore the patient presents earlier

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15

the flat type of the condition seen in the image is a ___ grade tumor that presents ___ and has a ____ prognosis because it ____

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the flat type of the condition seen in the image is a high-grade tumor that presents late and has a poor prognosis because it invades the bladder wall

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16

the squamous cell type of the condition seen in the image is associated with ___ and ___

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the squamous cell type of the condition seen in the image is associated mainly with S. hematobium and bladder stones

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17

a vignette with an "Egyptian immigrant" who has the condition seen in the image. Diagnosis and etiology?

 

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squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder caused by S. hematobium (parasite)

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18

describe clinical features of prostatitis

  • dysuria, frequency, urgency
  • low back/pelvic or genital pain
  • fever, chills and leukocytosis
  • loss of sex drive
  • painful erections/ejaculation

19

describe the findings of a DRE in prostatitis

enlarged, tender prostate

20

describe what is seen in the image

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21

describe the etiology of the condition seen in the image

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testosterone → DHT by 5-alpha reductase (found in stromal cells) causes hyperplasia of stroma & glands

affects central/periurethral & transitional zones

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22

the condition seen in the image affects ___ and ___ zones

it does NOT affect the ___ zone which is affected by ____ only

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the condition seen in the image affects central/periurethral and transitional zones

it does NOT affect the peripheral zone which is affected by prostate cancer only

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23

____ is the most important predisposing factor for the condition seen in the image

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testosterone is the most important predisposing factor for the condition seen in the image

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24

list the signs and symptoms of the condition seen in the image

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  • urethral compression:
    • difficulty starting & stopping urination
    • frequency/dribbling
    • nocturia. dysuria

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25

the histology of the condition seen in the image is hyperplasia of ___ and ___  (torturous, dilated/distended)

with 2 layers: inner ___ and outer ____

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the histology of the condition seen in the image is hyperplasia of stroma and glands (torturous, dilated/distended)

with 2 layers: inner columnar and outer flattened basal cells

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26

on DRE of the condition seen in the image, what is seen?

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uniformly enlarged, NOT nodular

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27

the initial complication of the condition seen in the image is ___; what else can this cause?

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the initial complication of the condition seen in the image is obstruction

back up of urine → bilateral hydroureters/hydronephrosis → chronic renal failure → increased serum calcium → recurrent kidney & bladder stones → infections and acute urinary retention

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28

list 2 potential treatments for the condition seen in the image

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  • TURP = transurethral resection
  • 5-alpha reductase inhibitors 

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29

____ is the most common cancer in men and 2nd most common cancer related cause of death in men >50 yrs

prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and 2nd most common cancer-related cause of death in men >50 yrs

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30

list the risk factors for the condition seen in the image

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  • AGE (>65)
  • African Americans
  • high fat diet
  • HPC1 gene
  • RNASEL gene
  • family history

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31

the condition seen in the image affects the ___ zone and therefore presents late because it is further away from ____

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the condition seen in the image affects the peripheral zone and therefore presents late because it is further away from the urethra

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32

the condition associated with the image metastasizes to ___ via the ____ and can cause ___ pain

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the condition seen in the image metastasizes to CNS via the venous plexus of Batson and can cause back pain

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33

describe the presentation of the condition seen in the image

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50% asymptomatic

  • microscopic hematuria
  • lower back pain (due to osteoblastic lesions seen in late stage/metas.)
  • weight loss
  • urinary symptoms
    • dysuria
    • weak, interrupted urine flow

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34

describe DRE findings in the condition seen in the image

this is compared to BPH, where the prostate is ___

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prostate is hard, nordular & irregularly enlarged

this is compared to BPH, where the prostate is uniformly enlarged and NOT nodular

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35

describe what is seen on biopsy of the condition associated with the image

____ cells → ____ cells with atypia and NO ____ cells

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biopsy: malignant glands back to back with little stroma

lined by SINGLE layer of cuboidal epithelial cells w/ atypia 

columnar cells → cuboidal cells with atypia and NO flattened basal cells

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36

PSA is normally produced by _____

what is a normal PSA value?

PSA is normally produced by prostatic glandular epithelium

normal = <4 ng/mL

high = >10 ng/mL

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37

a complication of the condition seen in the image is ____

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a complication of the condition seen in the image is  urethral stricture

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38

list conditions where PSA is high

  • cancer
  • BPH
  • prostatitis, infarction
  • ejaculation
  • extensive exercise

39

describe the image

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40

the condition seen in the image is described as failure of ____

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the condition seen in the image is described as failure of a testis to descend completely into its normal position within the scrotum

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41

the most common location of the condition seen in the image is ____, ____, ____

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the most common location of the condition seen in the image is upper scrotal, inguinal canal, abdominal

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42

an ____ is done to correct the condition in the image:

before 2 years old to reduce ___

before 5 years old to reduce ____

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an orchiopexy is done to correct the condition in the image:

before 2 years old to reduce infertility

before 5 years old to reduce testicular cancer/germ cell tumors

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43

in the histology of the condition seen in the image, there is atrophied ____ due to increased ____ which ultimately affects the ____ causing NO ____

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in the histology of the condition seen in the image, there is atrophied seminiferous tubules due to increased temperature outside of scrotum which ultimately affects the Sertoli cells causing NO spermatogenesis

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44

in the condition seen in the image; 

____ is normal (but still infertile b/c no ___ cells)

___ is low and ____ is high

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LH and testosterone are normal (but still infertile b/c no Sertoli cells)

inhibin is low and FSH is high

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45

complications of the condition seen in the image are ___ and ___

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complications of the condition seen in the image are infertility and increased risk of germ cell tumors

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46

the etiology of epididymo-orchitis in children is ____

the etiology of epididymo -orchitis in children is G-ve bacilli

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47

the etiology of epididymo-orchitis in males <35 years is ____

the etiology of epididymo -orchitis in males <35 years is: 

STD, caused by Gonorrhea or C. trachomatis

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48

the etiology of epididymo-orchitis in males >35 years is ____

the etiology of epididymo -orchitis in males >35 years is:

UTI, caused by E. coli or Pseudomonas

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49

list causes of pre-testicular male infertility

hypopituitarism, estrogen excess

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50

list causes of testicular male infertility

agonadism, atrophy, germ cell aplasia, maturation arrest

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51

list causes of post-testicular male infertility

blood/lymph obstruction, infections, immotile cilia syndrome (Kartgener's)

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52

list risk factors for testicular tumors

  • cryptorchidism = biggest risk factor
  • isochromosome 12p
    • duplicate of the P arm
  • testicular dysgenesis (Klinfelter's syndrome)
  • radiation

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53

list the testicular tumors associated with ages:

infant/children

15-30

30-50

>60 yrs

infant/children = teratomas & yolk sac

15-30 = mixed germ cell tumor

30-50 = seminoma

>60 yrs = lymphomas

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54

the condition seen in the image is well circumscribed with no ___ & ___ and is therefore painless

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the condition seen in the image is well circumscribed with no hemorrhage & necrosis and is therefore painless

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55

the condition seen in the image spreads via ___, especially to which 2 nodes?

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the condition seen in the image spreads via lymphatics, especially to the para-aortic and iliac lymph nodes

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56

the histology of the condition in the image would have a ____ appearance with sheets of ___ with __ and ____ infiltrate

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the histology of the condition in the image would have a fried egg appearance with sheets of uniform cells with delicate septa and lymphocytic infiltrate

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57

___ is a tumor marker for the condition seen in the image with no increase in serum ___ or ____

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LDH is a tumor marker for the condition seen in the image with no increase in serum HCG or AFP

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58

describe treatments for the condition seen in the image

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  • treatment:
    • excisional biopsy = allows for diagnosis and treatment
    • radiosensitive, so do radiotherapy
    • does NOT cause infertility

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59

describe the composition of the condition seen in the image

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seminiferous (seminoma) + non-seminiferous tubules (choriocarcinoma, embryonal, teratoma, yolk sac) 

therefore, all 5 germ cells are seen

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60

the condition seen in the image is a solid, (unilateral or bilateral?) tumor with ____ and ____

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the condition seen in the image is a solid, unilateral tumor with hemorrhage and necrosis

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61

since the condition in the image is partly seminoma, there would be an increase in ____

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since the condition in the image is partly seminoma, there would be an increase in LDH

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62

since the condition in the image is partly choriocarcinoma, there would be an increase in ____ which is secreted by _____

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since the condition in the image is partly choriocarcinoma, there would be an increase in B-hCG = "male pregnancy" (secreted by syncytiotrophoblasts)

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63

since the condition in the image is partly yolk sac, there would be an increase in ____ bodies, as well as in increase in serum ___

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since the condition in the image is partly yolk sac, there would be an increase in Schiller-Duval bodies (primitive glomeruli) as well as an increase in serum AFP, A1AT

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64

since the condition in the image is partly embryonal, ____ would be seen on histology

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since the condition in the image is partly embryonal, small, round blue cells in a bizarre arrangement would be seen on histology

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65

urethral opening on the ventral surface of penis = ___

urethral opening on the dorsal surface of penis = ___

urethral opening on the ventral surface of penis = hypospadias

urethral opening on the dorsal surface of penis = epispadias

66

phimosis is due to ____ or ____

phimosis is due to development anomalies or infection and scarring of the preputial ring

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67

describe paraphimosis

when a phimotic prepuce is forcibly retracted over the glans penis, causing marked constriction and swelling

painful, urethral constrictions, UTIs

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68

list the penile carcinoma in-situ

all are due to ____

all are due to HPV infection

 

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69

the etiology of the condition seen in the image is ____

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the etiology of the condition seen in the image is HPV 16 & 18

integrates into host chromosome → E6 and E7 inactivate p53 and Rb (respectively)

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70

list risk factors for the condition seen in the image

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  • multiple sexual partners
  • smoking
  • smegma (dirty lubricating fluid in uncircumscribed males)

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71

the condition seen in the image spreads via ____

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the condition seen in the image spreads via lymph

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72

describe the histology of the condition seen in the image

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malignant squamous cells with keratin pearls

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73

describe a complication of the condition seen in the image

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skin is breached → secondary bacterial infxn (S. aureus) → epididymo-orchitis

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74

hematocele is blood in the ___ caused by ____

hematocele is blood in the tunica vaginalis caused by trauma

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75

a hydrocele is accumulation of fluid in ____

a hydrocele is accumulation of fluid in the tunica

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76

varicocele is ____ 

varicocele is  dilatation of congested blood vessels in spermatic cord

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77

spermatocele is ____

spermatocele is dilatation of epididymis with semen

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78

scrotal cancer is commonly seen in ____ and is associated with ____

scrotal cancer is commonly seen in chimney sweepers and is associated with coal tar