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Flashcards in Male histo Deck (29):
1

Testis structure

Parenchyma and stroma
seminiferous tubules (exocrine) convoluted up to 1200 combined length of up to 400m
Leydig cells (endocrine) interstitium/stroma

2

Spermatogenesis

Sparmatogenic/germ cell
1) capsule
2) spermatogonium 2n - divide into spermatogonia and spermatocytes
3) Spermatocyte
4) Early spermatic 1n
5) late spermatid


Sertoli cells (10%) - columnar nurse cells, non-proliferative

3

Spermatogonium

cuboidal, dark nucleus

4

Spermatocyte

large euchromatic nuclei

5

Sertoli cell

euchromatic nuclei, columnar

6

Spermatids

conical DNA heads

7

Blood-testes barrier

tight junction separating spermatogonia and spermatocytes
protect from immunological reaction

8

Spermatid maturation

Juxtanuclear golgi complex (synthesis of acrosome)
Centrioles
Mitochondria migration
Flagellum development
Elimination of residual cytoplasm
Spermatozoa (70 days) + maturation (12 days)

9

Mature sperm structure

Head, neck, middle piece, tail
Nucleus covered by acrosome
Axoneme (9+2 microtubule) structure in tail
Dense fibers with mitochondrial sheath in middle piece

10

Sertoli cell structure

Golgi, nucleus
SER, lipid droplet
abundant mitochondria

11

Leydig cell structure

interstitium
endocrine - proximity to capillaries
lipid: foamy and washed out appearance
cholesterol --> testosterone
eccentric nucleus with prominent nucleoli (1 or 2)
Euchromatic nucleus
Tubulovesicular cristae of mitochondria

12

Rete testes

storage and passage
simple cuboidal epithelium

13

Epididymis

continuous duct
storage/maturation
fluid resorbed
spermatozoa mature, gain motility, gain fertilization capacity
passage takes ~12 days
duct surrounded by CT and smooth muscle

14

Vas deferens

hollow tube, ~40 cm in length
passes through inguinal canal, eventually joining seminal vesicle at ejaculatory duct
pseudostratified epithelium
lamina propria rich in elastic fibers
triple layer muscular wall
sympathetic stimulation during ejactulation
secretory and absorptive functions

15

Vas deferens cell structure

Apical stereocilia
with principal and basal cells

16

Seminal vesicle

Produces 70% of the seminal fluid (semen)
Primary secretion: fructose - primary energy source for spermatozoa
pseudostratified to simple columnar epithelium
apical domes instead of stereocilia

17

Prostate

collection of ~50 compound tubuloalveolar glands
unique fibromuscular stroma
15% of ejaculate - enzymes for liquefaction of semen
pseudostratified to simple columnar epithelium
with age, prostatic concretions visible

18

chemicals mediating contraction of blood vessels

Noradrenaline
endothelins
angiotensin II
serotonin
prostagnoids
tumor necrosis factor alpha

19

chemicals mediating relaxation of blood vessels

acetylcholine
dopamine
ATP
adenosine
VIp, related peptides
adrenomedullin, CGRP
prostanoids
endocannabinoids

20

Penis compoentns

Tunica albuginea
Corpus cavernosum
corpus spongiosum

21

Corpus cavernosum

vascular sinuses
with parasympathetic stimulation: dilation of helicine arteries

22

Glands of Littre

synthesize mucus in penis

23

Rete testis epithelium

simple cuboidal
no stereocilia
smooth muscle in stroma

24

Epididymus epithelium

pseudostratified (basal + columnar principal cells)
tall
apical stereocilia
sm in stroma

25

vas deferens epithelium

pseudostratified (basal + columnar principal cells)
not as tall
apical stereocilia
triple layered smooth muscle

26

Urethra epithelium

transitional > stratified columnar > stratified squamous
no stereocilia
corpus spongiosum - smooth muscle

27

Seminiferous tubule epithelium

germinal epithelium
spermatozoa at apical surface
10% ejaculate made here

28

Seminal vesicle epithelium

pseudostratified - simple columnar
domes instead of stereocilia
70% of ejaculate made here - fructose rich

29

Prostate epithelium

pseudostratified to simple columnar
no stereocilia
15% o ejaculate made here, with enzymes for semen liquefaction