Describe the internal and external genitalia of the male
Venous drainage of prostate
The prostatic venous plexus drains into the internal iliac vein which connects with the vertebral venous plexus, this is thought to be the route of bone metastasis of prostate cancer.
(ignore the lymphatic drainage on this diagram tara ghala6)
venous drainage of testes
The testicular veins arise from the Pampiniform plexus and drain into the :
IVC on the right
left renal vein on the left.
ughh why r veins so meaaaaaaan and make it complex! -.-
scrotal skin >> superficial inguinal lymph nodes
Testis >> via the spermatic cord to the para-aortic
(or lumber) glands at the transpyloric plane, LI (hence, upper abdomen must be palpated). Further spread may be to mediastinal and cervical nodes.
Fascial coverings (muscles too) of spermatic cord
From supeficial to deep
external oblique / internal oblique / transversus abdominis / transversalis fascia
where does the artery supplying blood to the testes arise?
what artery is above it? below it?
- above it is the renal A.
- below it is the superior mesenteric A.
anatomy of scrotum
The scrotum is a cutaneous sac consisting of 2 layers:
- heavily pigmented skin and the closely related dartos fascia,
- a fat-free fascial layer including smooth muscle fibers (dartos muscle) responsible for the rugose (wrinkled) appearance of the scrotum
contents of the scrotum and its muscular layers
anatomy of testes
The testes are (plum-shaped) located within the scrotum, w/ the epididymis situated on the posterolateral aspect of each testicle.
left testicle lies lower than the right.
located on the posterior abdominal wall
anatomy of the epididymis
The epididymis consists of a single heavily coiled duct. that hugs the testes posterirly
It can be divided into 3 parts;
Head – The most proximal part of the epididymis. It is formed by the efferent tubules of the testes, which transport sperm from the testes to the epididymis.
Body – Formed by the heavily coiled duct of the epididymis.
Tail – The most distal part of the epididymis. It marks the origin of the vas deferens, which transports sperm to the urethra for ejaculation.
contents of the spermatic cord
3 fascial layers
The vas deferens
testes in more detail (microstructure)
The testes (testicles) are the male gonads—paired ovoid reproductive glands that produce sperms (spermatozoa) and male hormones, primarily testosterone.
The testes have an ellipsoid shape.
They consist of a series of lobules, each containing seminiferous tubules (speghetti sperm factory) supported by interstitial tissue.
how does the testes reduce heat loss?
Because the dartos muscle (in the scrotum) attaches to the skin, its contraction causes the scrotum to wrinkle when cold, thickening the integumentary layer while reducing scrotal surface area and assisting the cremaster muscles in holding the testes closer to the body, all of which reduces heat loss. .
where is spermatazoa made, describe it's course
- Spermatozoa are produced in the seminiferous tubules.
- The developing sperm travels through the straight tubule,
- collects in the rete testes. (chna hilum of lung)
- sperm is transported in efferent tubules (sperm is more concentrsted, water drawn out)
- then to the epididymis for storage. (sperms mature & learn how to swim)
where does spermatogeneis takes place?
coverings of testes
The tunica vaginalis (parietal, cavity, visceral) externally, covering the testes, except where the testis attaches to the epididymis and spermatic cord.
It is derived from abdominal peritoneum during development.
The tunica albuginea is a fibrous capsule that encloses the testes. It penetrates into the parenchyma of each testicle, dividing it into lobules.
structure of testes and epididymus
what is the tunica vaginalis
Outpost of peritoneal cavity, as testes descend down in the scrotum it pulls some peritoneam with it, and envelopes the testes.
It can fill w/ fluid in its cavity > allowing free movement of the testes in the scrotum
dcrotum and coverings of the testes from superficial to deep into tests
a collection of serous fluid within the tunica vaginalis.
It is most commonly due to a failure of the processus vaginalis to close.
what r the 2 main cells found in the testes? location and their functions
Sertoli> in seminiferous tubule>>nurtures baby sperms, also produce testicular fluid
Leydeg> sit outside tubules>> makes testosterone
which cells secrete the hormone testosterone? describe them
Sit outside tubules & theyre full of lipid droplet and SER, so makes sense they make hormones
which secrete the male hormone testosterone.
Can testicles get twisted? if so how do u fix it?
YES! TESTICULAR TORSION
Can loose their testes and become infertile! If not diagnosed early!
It twisted on its blood supply & occludes the veins, the pressure increases
simply cutt scrotum open, take you the testes, unwind it back, then to prevent it from happening again, u suture the wall of the testes to the scrotum
what is the bell-clapper deformity?
Failure of normal posterior anchoring of the gubernaculum, epididymis and testis is called a bell clapper deformitybecause it leaves the testis free to swing and rotate within the tunica vaginalis of the scrotum much like the gong (clapper) inside of a bell.
can testicles swap sides?
no , cuz we have a fibrous scrotal septum!
whats the gubernaculum
Function during development.
As the scrotum and labia majora form in males and females respectively, the gubernaculum aids in the descent of the gonads
The testes evaginate the abdominal wall as they are pulled through by the gubernaculum, taking the spermatic fascia that surrounds the testis and its vessels with it
what is the spermatic cord
The spermatic cord refers to a collection of vessels, nerves and ducts that run to and from the testes.
They are surrounded by fascia, forming a cord-like structure.
beginning in the inferior abdomen and ending in the scrotum.
specific location of spermatic cord
begins in the inferior abdomen and ending in the scrotum.
The cord passes through the inguinal canal, entering the scrotum via the superficial inguinal ring.
It continues into the scrotum, ending at the posterior border of the testes. Here, its contents disperse to supply the various structures of the testes and scrotum.
what is the cremateric muscle? why is it significant?
is formed by the lowermost fascicles of the internal oblique muscle .
The cremaster muscle reflexively draws the testis superiorly in the scrotum, >> response to cold.
In a warm environment, such as a hot bath, the cremaster relaxes and the testis descends deeply in the scrotum.
Both responses occur in an attempt to regulate the temperature of the testis for spermatogenesis