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Flashcards in Management of the Avulsed Tooth Deck (56):
1

  • What is the incidence and main etiologic factors of tooth avulsion?

Incidence: 0.5% to 16% of traumatic injuries

Main etiologic factors:

  • Fights
  • Sports Injuries
  • Automobile Accidents

 

 

2

What is the most common avulsed tooth?

Maxillary Central Incisor

  • Most commonly avulsed tooth
  • Mandibular teeth - seldom affected
  • Most frequently involves a single tooth

3

What is the most common age to avulse teeth?

Most common age: 7 - 11

  • Permanent Incisors Erupting
  • Lossely Structured PDL

 

4

What are some common associated injuries of avulsed permanent teeth?

  • Fracture of alveolar socket wall
  • Injuries to the lips and gingiva

5

What is the ultimate goal of managing an avulsed tooth?

Manage the PDL!

  • PDL healing without root resorption
  • MOST CRITICAL FACTOR: Maintaing an intact and viable PDL on the root surface

6

What 3 ways can the PDL respond to tooth avulsion?

  1. Surface Resorption
  2. Replacement Resorption (Ankylosis)
  3. Inflammatory Resorption

7

What treatment considerations are there when dealing with a hockey player who stopped the final goal by stopping the puck with his teeth and happen to avulse his tooth?

  1. Extraoral time
  2. Extraoral environment
  3. Root surface manipulation
  4. Managment of the socket
  5. Stabilization

8

How time extraoral time affect resoprtion?

Shorter time = Better prognosis

< 30 min → 10% resorption

> 90 min → 90% resorption

*depending on storage medium

9

What liquids yield poor results as storage mediums and which offer good protection for 2 hours?

Poor Results...

  1. Tap Water
  2. Dry

Good protection for 2 hours

  1. Saliva
  2. Saline

10

What are some characteristics of milk as a storage medium?

  • Physiologic osmolality
  • Markedly fewer bacteria than saliva
  • Readily available

11

How is Milk compare to Saliva as a storage media?

  • Storage for 2 hours - Periodontal healing almost as good as immediate replantation
  • Storage for 6 hrs - Saliva → extensive replacement resorption
  • Milk → healing almost as good as immediate replantation

12

What are some characteristics of Hank's Balanced Salt Solution?

  • Proper pH and osmolaity
  • Reconstitutes depleted cellular metabolites
  • Washes toxic breakdown products from the root surface

13

What are some characteristics of Viaspan (Organ Transplant Storage Media)?

  • Dramatically prolongs the storage of human organs
  • Expensive
  • Not readily available
  • Complete healing after 6 and 12 hours
  • Good for extended storage periods (72 and 96 hours)
  • Hank's balanced solution → healing results similar to Viaspan

14

What are 5 recommended Storage Media?

  1. Socket (immediate replantation)
  2. Cell culture medium
  3. Milk
  4. Physiologic saline
  5. Saliva

15

What things do you NOT do when trying to retain PDL cell viability?

  • Do not curette root surface
  • Avoid caustic chemicals

16

How long is milk, saliva, and tap water acceptable to place a tooth in for extra oral handling?

  • Milk - 6 hours
  • Saliva - 2 hours
  • Tap Water - Unacceptable Media

17

What are 3 handling recomendations for a tooth with extra oral dry time

PDL healing is still possible

  1. Keep root moist
  2. Dnot handle root surface
  3. Gentle Debridement

18

What happens to a tooth with an extra oral dry time of > 1 hour?

 

  • Loss of PDL cell viability
  • Treatment recomendations: → Remove tissue tags, Soak in accepted dental fluoride solution for 20 minutes

19

What is an acceptable topical fluoride solution for an avulsed tooth?

  • 1.0 - 2.4% fluoride solution
  • Sodium Fluoride (Andreasen)
  • Stannous Fluoride (Krasner)
  • 20 minute soak

 

20

How do you manage the socket of an avulsed tooth?

 

  1. Remove contaminated coagulum in socket → Irrigate with sterile saline
  2. Examine socket → IF FRACTURE IS EVIDENT → Reposition fractured bone with a blunt instrument
  3. Replant the tooth using digital pressure

21

Define Splint...

A RIGID or FLEXIBLE device used to support, protect, or immoblize teeth, preventing further injury

22

What are the 2 types of splints?

  1. Acid Etch Composite
  2. Cross-Suture

23

What are some different acid etch composite splints?

 

  1. Interproximal Composite
  2. Composite with arch wire
  3. Composite with monofilament nylon

24

Are acid etch composite splints considered fuctional splints?

Yes!

  • 20-30 lb monofilment nylon
  • Bonded with composite
  • Allows phsiologic movement

25

What are the indications for a cross-suture splint?

  1. No adjacent teeth to splint to
  2. Unmangeable traumatized children

26

What is the recommended amount of days one should splint teeth?

7-10 Days

27

What is the recommended splinting time for closed apex? Open apex with dry time < 60 minutes? Open apex with a dry time > 60 minutes?

  • Closed Apex → 7 - 14 days
  • Open Apex with dry time < 60 minutes → 7 - 14 days
  • Open Apex with dry time > 60 minutes → 4 weeks

28

What is the chance of revascularization for mature roots (< 1.0mm) and immature roots (> 1.00)?

  • Mature Roots → 0% Revascularization
  • Immature Roots → 18-34% Revascularization

29

What is the sequence of revascularization after a tooth is reimplanted?

  1. Loss of blood supply to pulp
  2. Coronal Pulp (Day 4) - Extensive ischemic injury
  3. Apical Pulp (Day 4) - Initial Revascularization
  4. In 4 weeks you will have: Revasculrization, Reinnervation, New odontoblastic layer

30

What is the typical sequela of revascularization?

Pulp canal obliteration

31

As dry storage time increases...pulp survival increases or decreases?

Pulp Surival DECREASES

32

What chance of pulp revascularization do you have with nonphysiologic storage media?

Minimal chance of pulp revascularization

33

What chance of revascularization do you have if the tooth is placed in physiologic storage like HBSS, milk, saline, or saliva?

Improved chance of pulp revascularization

34

Does systemic antibiotics increase the chance of pulp revascularization?

No!

35

Does applying topical Doxycycline affect the pulpal prognosis?

YES!

  • Decreased microorganisms in pulpal lumen
  • Increased pulp revascularization

36

What is the recomended topical antibiotic?

Topical Doxycyline or Minocycline

1 mg in 20 ml physiologic saline, 5 minute soak

37

What is the endodontic raitonale for applying topical antibiotics?

In a mature root at 4 weeks...

Very limited revascularization

Ischmemic coronal pulp with GREAT RISK OF INFECTION!!!

38

For a mture root, what is the endodontic rationale for using Calcium Hydroxide?

  • Antibacterial
  • Increaeses pH in dentin
  • Favors mineralization over resorption

39

How long would you apply Calcium Hydroxide for a mature root?

4 Weeks

40

When do you have wiggle room for EXTRAORAL dry time for a closed apex or open apex?

  • Closed apex  → One hour or less
  • Open apex → More than one hour

41

For a mture root, when do you do a pulpectomy?

  • Immediately after reimplantation or...
  • 7-10 days

42

If the extraoral dry time is < 1 hour, how would you treat a Closed Apex? How would you treat an Open Apex?

  • Closed Apex → Pulpectomy immediately after replantation or 7-10 days
  • Open Apex → Observe

43

How would you treat a tooth with an extra oral dry time of > 1 hour for an Open Apex? How about a Closed Apex?

  • For Open or Closed → Pulpectomy immediately prior to/aftet replantation or wait until 7-10 days

44

If extra oral dryt time is > 60 minutes, how do you remove necrotic tissue attached to the root?

Gauze

45

What is the sequence of event if the extra oral dry time is > 60 minutes for an OPEN APEX?

  1. Carefully remove necrotic tissue attached to the root using gauze
  2. Administer local anesthesia
  3. Irrigate the socket with saline
  4. Examine the socket for possible fracture and reposition if necessary
  5. Preferably, root canal treatment should be carries out priot to replantation
  6. Replant the tooth slowly with slight digital pressure
  7. Suture gingival laceration, especially in the cervical area
  8. Verify normal position of the replanted tooth radiogrpahically
  9. Apply a flexible splint for 4 weeks  (up to 0.016" or 0.4mm).

46

What steps should you use in emergency treatment for replantation?

  1. Local anesthetic, if necessary
  2. Radiograph to verify position
  3. Check occlusion
  4. Physiologic Splint

47

What are some additional considerations in emergency treatment to consider as post operative care?

1. Analgesics (Motrin & Tylenol)

2. Chlorhexidine

3. Tetanus → Refer to physician for tetanus prophylaxis prn

48

What are the sigs for Antibiotics after dental trauma/reimplantation?

  • Doxycyline - 50 mg bid for 7 days (appropriate dose per pt age and weight)
  • Amoxicillin - 500 mg qid for 7 days (appropriate dose per pt age and weight)

49

How does tetracycline stack up versus amoxicillin in a repalcement resorption model?

Tetracycline had BETTER anti-resorptive properties

50

How does tetracycline stack up vs amoxicillin in an inflammatory root resorption model?

Tytracycline had BETTER anti-bacterial properties

51

What is the bottom line recomendation for tetraycline?

"Tetracycline could be considered as an alternative to amoxicillin after avulsion injuries"

52

Would you worry about tetracycline stating after prescribing to a child?

  • Not a problem since avulsed maxillary anteriors have already erupted and are not susceptible to staining
  • At worst, posterior teeth might be stained → Remote possibility with 7-10 day prescription

53

What is the treatment algorhythm for < 1 hour of extra oral dry time for a Closed Apex and Open Apex?

  • Closed Apex → Pulpectomy, immediate 7-10 days Ca(OH)2 tx
  • Splint removal: 2 weeks
  • Open Apex → Observe
  • Splint removal: 2 weeks

54

What is the treatment algorhythm for > 1 hour of extraoral dry time for both a Closed Apex and Open Apex?

  • Closed Apex → Pulpectomy immediate 7-10 days Ca(OH) 2 tx
  • Splint Removal: 2 weeks
  • Open Apex → Pulpectomy immediate 7-10 days Ca (OH)2 tx
  • Splint removal: 4-6 weeks

55

In summary, there are 4 factors to remember when treating an avulsed tooth...

  1. Be prepared - DENTAL TRAUMA KIT
  2. Immerse tooth in a physiologic storage medium to "buy time"
  3. Determine extraoral DRY time
  4. Follow AAE Guidelines

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