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Flashcards in manchester sources Deck (20)
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Dr James Phillips Kay

who? young Medical graduate
where? Physician at Ardwick and Ancoats Dispensary in the heart of Manchester
Confronted with Cholera epidemic - 1832
Panic because of threat of cholera epidemic spreading from poor areas to more affluent areas
why? Authorities relied on public health measures to stop cholera from spreading
who for? Kay's report summarised voluntary board of health's inspectors findings - Kay himself visited all the districts mentioned
'The Moral and Physical Condition of the Working Classes Employed in the Cotton Manufacture in Manchester'
what? Report was Kay's attempt to understand spread of disease and find ways of combatting it
Tables of statistics
Found connection between the disease and poverty
disease of the poor
Kay links poverty and vice but does not blame poor - he suggests it is down to their ignorance and the want for better examples and coping with 'hunger and toil'.
Kay makes a moral judgement
'moral and physical condition' of the working classes
Kay uses his medical background to add authority to his findings - adopts a scientific tone. medical language, distant - does not blame but seeks to explain and seek something to be done about it
'it reflects a medical view of society'
Kay talks about living conditions - streets and houses - connection between cleanliness and bad habits.
Kay is frustrated by limitations of his statistics and adds description to the tables.
Kay says society is difficult to measure
Kay also compares the condition of the working class homes with middle class homes eg ill-ventilated, uncleanliness' the two types of accommodation are not comparable.


Friedrich Engels

who? German bourgeoisie
mill owner - Father owns Mills in Manchester
Friends with Marx
Meets up with Chartists - interested in their campaign
Has an agenda - bias
Reports of what he sees but also reports on information that he hasn't seen but gleaned from others
'The condition of the working class' 1845
what? pamphlet/treatise
polemic, didactic, highly descriptive
uses reports and information form other sources
for a German audience
reports on polarisation between a small number of economists and the increasingly exploited working classes
deplores the 'moral consequences' of women working and men having to do domestic duties BUT also talks of how the 'rule of the husband over the wife must have been inhuman too'
talks of demoralisation of working class
(he believed eventually the proletariat would overthrow the bourgeoisie)
*CONFLICT -Political conflict of unregulated market, political economy, Laissez Faire, economic chaos resulting in a dehumanisation of the working-class. Social conflict – starvation - dehumanising of working class – not seen as people leads to even greater separation of the classes.
Engels considers if crime by the working class is 'the earliest, crudest, and least fruitful form of rebellion' and this led to other forms of resistance - strikes and political protests
writing at a time of protests in Manchester


Joseph Adshead

merchant and reformer
Involved in Anti-Corn Law League
penal reformer
Distress in Manchester: Evidence (Tabular and otherwise) of the State of the Labouring Classes in 1840-42
Report linked to charitable distribution
statistical material - hard facts and individual stories
(some compared to Kay's findings)
'Narratives of Suffering' - names the working-class featured
providing names and describing circumstances makes hardship seem more real
deliberate - handing out donations to the poor
examples are provided by a 'military gentleman' - not easily swayed by emotions - significant
Adshead stresses families are respectable
circumstances beyond their control
Adshead appeals for an emotional response
Makes a moral judgement
Connection with working class by middle-class inspectors is new way of knowing other classes


explicit & implicit references

eg Engel's source
*Explicit Reference – to the unregulated market, Laissez Faire, and the impact of this on the working class. The failings of Political Economy.
‘growing polarisation between a small number of capitalists and the increasingly exploited working classes.’ (Mackie, R. with Chimisso, C. 2017, p. 13)
*Implicit Reference - Separation of classes.


Primary source
Secondary source

A primary source refers to documentation or material presented by parties that were directly present or involved in the referred subject, while a secondary source refers to documentation derived from the opinion or views of primary sources.


Historical source
Literary Source

Mary Barton


Period of Chartism
Period of revolution in Europe
Cotton Famine
American Civil War
Age of Equipoise
Preston Lockout
Utilitarianism - For the greater good.
Condition of England -Engels, Carlyle, Disraeli. Dickens, Gaskell
Irish Famine
Anti Corn Law League
Reform Acts
Factories Act (Women & Children)
Great Exhibition
Hard Times - Charles Dickens
Self Help - Samuel Smiles
Food Riots - Stalybridge
Third Reform Act - all male householders
The Condition of the Working Class published in English (USA)

1830s - 1840s
1861- 65
1850s to 1860s
1853 - 54

1832 & 1867


political economy

for - middle class and upper class who benefit for unregulated industry
against - Chartists. Engels and Marx cited
in conflict with - Carlyle, Dickens saw how Political Economy was in conflict with social issues - impact on working class.


laissez Faire

leave alone - unregulated business
freedom from resrictions
(did not trust gov - bias)



dehumanised and devalued the working class



Wrote for the Clerisy - he was at centre of literati - elite and middle class readership
Scottish, working class background - he is an outsider
political/philosophical essayist
Wrote about Chartists
was not against them but not totally for them
he believed they (Chartists) were in want of good leadership by the elite - moral authority
warned gov. not to ignore the meetings of chartists and their demands - at the elite's peril
writing - rhetoric, persuasive, speech-like, discursive
historical and literary writing
saw conflict between political economy and society - social divide and unrest - consequences of an unregulated market
argues from a moral perspective
Carlyle's voice is heard in debates


Leon Faucher

French, economist - wrote for French liberal journal
middle class and elite readership?
Faucher's work immediately available in Britain (unlike Engel's)
Fauchers is impressed by the vitality of the City's industrial development
Faucher talks of the impact on the economy by the fluctuations in the demand for cotton goods
Faucher makes reference to poor conditions of the working class but presents it as an unfortunate side effect of efficient production
moral judgement on working class - worried about the moral consequences of employing women in the factories, the degradation of the working class, crime and public disorder as a consequence of industrialisation
Faucher discursive style of writing - distant
he is concerned about the consequences of industrialisation but sees it as interconnected problems
Faucher calls working class workers as operatives
writing at a time of protests in Manchester


condition of England

coined by Carlyle
social problems and issues indissolubly tied to economic vitality
'from this filthy sewer,,, pure gold flows' de Tocqueville
Writers such as Charles Dickens, Elizabeth Gaskell and Charlotte Brontë illuminated contemporary social problems through detailed descriptions of poverty and inequality.
sometimes - paternalism



moral philosophy - focuses on consequences or outcome


David Ross

Chartist lecturer in Manchester
from Ireland, Catholic - outsider - working class
speaker on the corn laws before a speaker for the Chartists
arrested after Plug Strikes but acquitted due to no evidence
argues from a political perspective
inequalities between masters and men - legislation biased in favour of mill owners
hand loom weavers - controlled their own labour
factories - source of poverty, wretchedness and discontent
Ross' voice not heard in debates


all sources

male voices
mostly middle class or elite
only Carlyle and Ross are working class and outsiders



Rapid industrialisation
rapid population growth of Manchester
Divided city - rich would never see poor
poor housing - ill designed - not planned - sprawling
workers laid off and then employed again due to fluctuations in demand for cotton
strikes, meetings
backdrop of revolutions
factory acts - reduced working hours for women and children
safety of workers - children and workers injured and killed but needed a wage


how others saw Manchester
why people were interested in Manchester

as a city representing a society in crises.
to investigate the divide between the classes - growing polarisation between capitalists and working classes
investigate working-class poverty
how Manchester fits into wider debate about 'Condition of England'
to see this great rapid expansion of industry - development
poplations growth - population tripled 1801 - 1841
More than centre of cotton industry - developed ancillary industries too - chemical and engineering
centre for region's transport networks - canals and then railways
centre of popular protests from Peterloo - dampened down after Great Reform Act 1832 - middle class and some working class the franchise - protests for wider franchise by Manchester Political Union and National Charter Association
Plug Strikes


visitors to manchester

Friedrich Engels - German, mill owner, bourgeoisie, socialist/marxist
Johanna Shopenhauer - German novelist
William cooke taylor
Leon Faucher, French economist


working class

commodity - hands, operatives
weariness from toil and starvation
hand loom worker was in control of own hours and labour
factory worker is controlled by the factory machine times and ultimately the mill owner
living conditions
impact of political economy on workers - unregulated business with no foresight for fluctuations in demand for cotton which inevitably led to laying off workers with no alternative means of income
disease - cholera epidemic
Monotonous work