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Flashcards in Marxism 2 Deck (21)
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1
Q

How did Marx see as proof that the modes of production did not work?

A

every period marked by crises

2
Q

what question was Marx concerned with?

A

how can humans be free?

3
Q

how did he see the process of labour as constraining us?

A

Through labour we gradually free ourselves from our natural constraints, but entangle ourselves in social constraints

4
Q

How did Marx explain relationships?

A

on their material basis – the need for food/water/shelter drives human interaction

5
Q

what is historical materialism?

A

considers change over time and concerned with material reality

6
Q

how did Marx see surplus as being created?

A

The difference between the actual value of the proletariat’s labour and their wage is what creates surplus (or profit) for capitalism

7
Q

why does productive capitalism lead to a crisis?

A

Crises of overproduction – too much being created that people cannot afford, which didn’t allow for reinvestment

8
Q

What is Gramsci’s theory of hegemony?

A

ruling class stays in power by developing a dominant set of ideas which are all pervasive and taken for granted in a society, blinding us to our oppression

9
Q

what quote from Marx could highlight Gramsci’s point?

A

“religion is the opium of the people”

10
Q

what is Althusser’s idea?

A

ideological state apparatus

11
Q

what is ideological state apparatus?

A

the bourgeoisie maintain power by using institutions that spread bourgeois ideology and ensure that the proletariat is in a state of false class consciousness

12
Q

what is false class conciousness? (Lukacs)?

A

denotes people’s inability to recognize inequality, oppression, and exploitation in a capitalist society because of the prevalence within it of views that naturalize and legitimize the existence of social classes

13
Q

what is commodity fetishism?

A

fetishise the abstract exchange value

14
Q

how can Marx be seen to have a true appreciation for the exchange item of a commodity?

A

Marx had to consistently pawn his and his families items in order to keep writing and survive

15
Q

why did neo-marxism develop?

A

to address the issues it felt traditional Marxist theory couldn’t address

16
Q

what are 2 key distinctions between neo-marxism and traditional marxism?

A
  • Angled for a peaceful ideological dissemination, rather than revolution
  • Consideration of cultural, individual factors as well as economic, structural factors
17
Q

when did Herbert Marcuse publish one-dimensional man?

A

1964

18
Q

what theory of Marx’s did Marcuse add to?

A

alienation

19
Q

how did Marcuse add to Marx’s theory?

A
  • Capitalism pushes man so hard they see themselves as extensions of commodities
  • Modern capitalism creates false needs and false consciousness for consumption of commodities, locking one-dimensional man into a one-dimensional society which leads man to have to see themselves in their commodities
20
Q

why did Marcuse believe it was now impossible for the working class to have a revolution?

A

Pressure of consumerism has led to the working class becoming involved in the capitalist society

21
Q

who did Marcuse say would be able to have a revolution?

A

an alliance between radical intellectuals and the groups not yet integrated including the persecuted, the unemployed and the unemployable