Flashcards in Materials for Furniture Construction Deck (225):
The most prevalent raw material for furniture industries. Can be converted into veneer, plywood and particle board which provides a defect-free, wide dimensions and a table materials.
Timber that is sawn or split in the form of beams, boards, joists, planks, esp. that which is smaller than heavy timber.
Coniferous or cone-bearing, needle-leafed, usually evergreen tree.
These are deciduous or broad-leafed trees with the presence of pores, or vessels.
A most expensive Philippine wood specie, used for furniture and panelings, for expensive flooring, door panels, stairs and plywood veneer and facings.
Philippine hardwood species used for posts and girders, or jambs attached to concrete and also for wooden decks having flooring and railings exposed to weather.
Yakal and Guijo
A Philippine softwood specie that is used for panelings, sidings, flooring and furniture. Also used for framings and trusses.
Philippine wood species that are most common lumber in the market. Used generally for framings, joists, trusses, nailers, etc.
Tanguile (Philippine Mahogany) and Apitong
A Philippine wood specie used for framings, chests, and jewel boxes.
White and Red Lauan
A Philippine hardwood specie for chests, jewel boxes, stair frames. It's finish is black w/ brownish streaks.
A Philippine wood specie that is used for panelings and plywood veneer. It's a wood specie similar to Walnut.
A Philippine wood specie that is similar to pine, and used for paneling. Not sturdy for structural elements.
A wood specie used to make "Santos".
A wood specie that is light grayish-brown to reddish brown in texture. Its striking grain figure and large open pores are its most distinct property.
A type of wood that is creamy white to light reddish-brown in color. Frequently straight-grained and tiny wood pores. Bird's eye pattern and special burl figures are also available.
A wood that is light gray-brown to dark purple-brown in color. Wide variety of plain and highly figured patterns.
A wood that is cream color to light reddish-brown. It has visible resin canals and obvious growth rings.
A creamy white to light reddish-brown type of wood with extremely small pores.
A wood specie that is light to dark reddish-brown. It has straight grain and small individual pores.
A wood specie that is grayish through creamy white through to a reddish-dark brown. It has distinct straight grains and open pores.
A wood specie that is yellowish-brown through reddish brown to dark red in color. Frequently highly figured grain pattern and open wood pores. Extremely stable making it perfect for table tops.
A very light brown hardwood. Distinct straight grain and open pores. Commonly used as bentwood.
A light yellow to brownish-yellow with green tinge wood. Even texture and straight grain pattern with barely visible pores.
Tawny yellow to dark brown with frequent lighter and darker streaks. Pattern very similar to that of Walnut.
Creamy white to reddish brown wood. Occasional dark streaks(growing in different seasons) and large wood pores.
Light brown to dark brown often containing shades of red; straight grain pattern with obvious light and dark boundaries. Excellent bending qualities.
Various shades of dark brown to dark purple; conspicuous dark streaks; large open wood pores. Commonly used in Chinese furniture.
Creamy white to yellowish with obvious differences between spring and summer growth. Pronounced resin canal, and wild grain markings make this a difficult wood to finish.
Deep reddish-brown wood with obvious alternating spring and summer growth rings.
Light red with light colored streaks running throughout; knotty pattern and other natural markings are always present. Highly aromatic and moderately hard though brittle.
Pale reddish-brown; obvious wide growth pattern and small wood pores. Fine textured and good shock resistance.
Pale to dark brown with occasional red streaks running throughout; large open wood pores.
Creamy white to creamy brown wood with frequent reddish markings; faint growth rings and broad wood raise which are darker than the background wood. Very weak with a low resistance to shock.
A method of drying wood wherein lumber is strip-piled at a slope on a solid foundation to allow air to circulate around every piece while sloping allows water to run off quickly.
Air-drying or Sun drying
A wood drying method where the wood is artificially dried to the correct moisture content.
The dimensions of a piece of wood before it is planed down.
The dimensions of lumber after it has been dressed.
A piece of lumber 12 inches wide, 1 inch thick and 1 foot long.
What are the different types of wood grain structure?
- Straight grain
- Inter-locked grain
- Wavy or Curly grain
A wood grain structure where fibers are running in the same direction as the main axis of the tree.
A wood grain structure where grains are in successive layers and in opposite direction.
A grain structure that are constantly changing in orientation so that a line drawn parallel to their direction appears as wavy lines.
Wavy or Curly Grain
A type of wood grain structure which results when a straight grained log is not sawn along its vertical axis.
A type of wood grain structure when trees grow twisted. The board's fibers follow a course with a twist that is either left or right handed.
A type of wood grain structure wherein the board's fibers run approximately parallel with the vertical axis of the log from which it originated.
This type of wood grain structure results when the direction of wood fibers has constantly changed.
A wood grain structure that have fibers at directions that are varying and irregular from the log's vertical axis.
A type of wood grain structure with grains that result from trees whose fibers lined up in opposite directions in each growth year.
A wood grain structure when wood is cut parallel to the grain directions and tangent to the growth rings.
Plain/Tangential or Flat Grain
A wood grain structure when board is cut parallel to the grain direction but through the radius of the growth rings.
Quarter or Radial Grain
A wood grain structure when board is cut across the grain (perpendicular to the grain direction and the growth rings).
The most common method of sawing a lumber because it produces the highest quantity of usable lumber. A method wherein the sawyer begins by sawing several boards from one side of the log, turns it 90 degrees and saws several more, and continues in this manner "sawing around" the log. Its boards show flat grain on their faces and quarter grain on the edges.
A method of sawing lumber wherein the sawyer cuts the logs in quarters, then slices each quarter into boards. Its boards show mostly quarter grain on their faces and flat grain on the edges.
A method of sawing a lumber which is sometimes called sawing through and through. It produces much wider boards than other methods, and these boards show mostly mixed grain - flat grain near the center of the face and quarter grain near the edges.
These are in effect the basal stumps of incipient or cast-off branches in the living tree.
Small knots in wood 1/2 in (12.5mm) or under, often caused by the shedding of early branches. Usually allowable in prime timber.
These are knots sliced through their length during sawing, and commonly known as 'slash knots'.
Spike or Splay Knots
These are dead knots which are still sound and difficult to dislodge, and often ringed with resin in softwood.
2 or 3 knots springing from a common center.
The lengthwise separation of the wood along the grain.
A form of a wood shake defect wherein the log splits from the pith or heart radially along the medullary rays, usually indicating that the tree has passed its prime.
A form of a wood shake defect that project inwardly from a definite frost rib on the cambium. It is a result of a severe weather.
A form of a wood shake defect when the soft springwood of the log splits away from the harder summerwood, either during seasoning or through shearing stresses in the growing tree.
When tangential shakes run along part of the annual ring only.
When tangential shakes run completely around the log.
A form of a wood shake defect caused by compression and not by splitting/shearing, while the actual rupture is across the grain and not with it as with all other shakes.
A natural wood defect that is sometimes known as resin pockets, they can appear either as thin veins or shallow cavities filled with resin. Caused by damage to the cambium layer in resinous woods.
A natural wood defect which are repeated damage to the cambium layer by small insects. It is often healed over with hark, and may show as small dots or patches of brown cork deeply buried in some woods.
A natural wood defect that are patches of ingrowing bark, probably caused by exterior damage to the growing tree.
A natural wood defect which shows patches of sapwood that survive within the heartwood and show as lighter patches.
A wood defect caused either by fungal or insect attack irritating the cambium layers, and resulting in large rapid growths, usually at the base of the tree.
Tissue formed over a wound in a tree resulting in unnatural growth incorporated in the normal wood growth.
These are dead sections in the branches of a tree caused by fungoid disease.
A depression in the outer surface of a log where the tree failed to renew following an injury. A partially heated fire scar.
An artificial wood defect when the plank hollows across the width forming a rounding on the under face, often due to incorrect piling.
Cupping or Rounding
A wood defect when the plank is curved like a bow throughout its length.
A wood defect that is sometimes known as edge bend. The wood remains flat but bends edgewise on its own plane.
A wood defect wherein the plank twists on its longitudinal axis with the result that the long edges are straight, but the diagonals are curved. Usually known as ' in winding'.
A wood defect when the butt end of the plank splits open, usually caused by too rapid drying or sometimes by too much temperature.
A wood defect when the wood is covered with small splits along the grain caused by too rapid drying in hot sun.
The lifting of the wood in innumerable small layers caused by incorrect seasoning or sometimes due to structural weakness.
A wood defect when the grain runs obliquely to the longitudinal axis caused by incorrect sawing.
A defect in wood caused by too rapid drying resulting in the outside cells of the timber drying and hardening, sealing of moisture in the central part of the board.
Severe internal stresses and subsequent checking of the wood fibers not visible from outside cause by continuous kiln drying of case hardened timber.
The shrinking & warping of wood caused by too rapid kilning or too slow drying at high temperature.
A type of wood finish that emphasize and enhance the charm of natural wood color and grain.
A type of transparent wood finish that soaks into the wood pores to give a natural look and feel.
A type of transparent wood finish that seals wood pores for protection against water and other destructive elements.
A transparent wood finish that is made from resins dissolved in ethyl alcohol. It forms a high-gloss film on the surface when dried.
(Resin + Ethyl Alcohol)
A transparent wood finish made from various gums and resins dissolved in an oil or alcohol. It gives a relatively hard, tough and reasonably elastic finish.
Classified into 2 types, natural and synthetic
A spirit varnish made by dissolving purified lac (a resinous secretion of the female of the lac insect) flakes in denatured alcohol. It adds a warm amber color to wood and can be affected by heat, example is it produces white rings under a hot bowl or mug.
(Lac Flakes + Denatured Alcohol)
A transparent wood finish that can be achieved by simply using boiled linseed oil or various other oils.
Oil Stain Finish
A transparent plastic finish made of polyhydric alcohol esterified with oleic, linoleic, palmetic and stearic fatty acids and modified with tolyrene disocnynate and mineral spirits. Very tough, hard and flexible finish which has superior resistance to chipping, abrasion and dirt retention.
A wood finish that usually comes in paste form and liquid form, varies greatly in harness and durability. It is achieved by brushing, rubbing or spraying processed fatty acids from animals and vegetables, mineral sources combined with alcohol.
Wax or Films
A wood finish that alters coloring of the wood or accentuates its natural color without covering the grain.
Wood Stain Finish
A wood finish that results to lightening of the wood color to yellowish white and neutralizes the color making it noticeable. It is achieved by applying one of the various acids and chlorine compound pertained as bleaching agents.
A type of bleach finish that is excellent for removing chemicals, dyes, ink and water stains from wood surface if used full strength.
Chlorinated Laundry Bleach
A type of bleach finish best used not only on natural wood colors but also on many water and chemical stains.
A fairly expensive and extremely strong bleach that can bring out really light tones on dark wood because of strength.
A wood finish that gives a solid finish for protection and decoration.
A mixture of solid pigment suspended in a liquid vehicle, which when applied to a surface, forms an adherent continuous film which provides protection, decoration, sanitation, identification and other functional properties.
Paints and Enamels
What are the 4 ingredients of paints?
- Pigment (Imparts Color)
- Vehicle (Nonvolatile Fluid)
- Thinner (To dilute paint or varnish)
- Driers (Accelerates oxidation and hardening)
Made of thick veneer sheets glued together one on top of the other with grain of the sheets arranged crosswise.
A series of wood core strips glued together side by side to form a slab which is sandwiched between outer layers of veneer or think plywood.
Composed of wood chips carefully graded, mixed with synthetic resin glue and either pressed or extruded into rigid, self supporting sheets of uniform thickness which are sanded down to close tolerances.
A type of engineered wood product that is made out of wood fibers.
A board that is constructed similarly as fiber boards except that it has a thin outer pressed-melamine finish.
A material, usually a plastic polymer, which becomes soft when heated and hard when cooled.
A polymer that irreversibly becomes rigid when heated.
The foaming of polyurethane isocyanate and polystyrene with suitable gassing agents to form rigid shell structures. Self-supporting chair shells, imitation moldings and wood carvings are made by these methods.
Rigid Foam Plastics
A type of rigid thermoset plastic foam that has a very high thermal resistance, low water absorption, low water vapor permeability and good adhesion. Used for thermal insulation for roofs, cavity walls, perimeter; refrigeration, pipe lagging.
A type of rigid thermoset plastic foam that is relatively low resistance for given thickness. It has high strength and very good thermal stability. Used for insulation of flat roofs and core material for sandwich panels.
Phenol-formaldehyde (Phenolic Foam)
A type of rigid thermoset plastic foam that has high thermal resistance for a given thickness but low mechanical strength. High water absorption and high water vapor permeability. Used for cavity wall insulation.
A type of rigid thermoset plastic foam that has good insulation efficiency. High strength, good chemical and moisture resistance. Used restrictively for spray applications for storage tanks and vessels, and as core material for sandwich panels.
A composite material or fibre-reinforced polymer made of a plastic reinforced by fine fibers made of glass.
GRP (Glass Reinforced Plastic)
A transparent thermoplastic often used in sheet form as a lightweight or shatter-resistant alternative to glass. It is available in clear transparent, pastel shades, full colors, and transfusing and fluorescent colors in thickness from 1/25 (1mm) in to 1/2 in (12.5mm), and up to 2 in (50mm) diameter.
Perspex or Acrylic Sheet
A fiber material that has universal uses for it can be cold drawn to 5 times its original strength, thus straightening the chain molecules and imparting great strength and excellent wear resistance. Used for furniture guides, sliders, rollers, ext. It is also used in knock-down fittngs as dowel pegs that can be glued into such loose-textured materials such as chipboard.
Composed of layers of craft paper impregnated with phenolic resins while the surface pattern can be purely decorative in an infinite range of designs or an exact simulation of real wood grains, is printed on a cover paper, and coated with a scratch-resistant surface of melamine resin.
Decorative Plastic Laminates
A type of metal which is composed mainly of iron with small additions of other metals or substances, e.g wrought iron, cast iron, mild steel and carbon steel.
An iron with traces of silicate. It is easily worked and is tough and ductile. Used as decorative work such as screens and gates.
An iron with small amounts of carbon, silicon, sulfur etc. Used as cylinder blocks, piston rings, vice/vise bodies, fire backs, manhole covers.
Iron with up to 0.3 % carbon. It is used for general purpose metal used in bars, rods, sheet, rolled section and angle form; nuts, bolts, screws, tubing, furniture construction.
Steel with chromium and nickel. Uses: cutlery, furniture frames.
A ferrous metal that has a composition varied by addition of different elements such as nickel, chromium, copper and manganese to molten steel. Uses: saws, chisels, plane irons, scissors, knives, hammer heads, springs
Tool and allow steel
A ferrous metal that has a high resistance to corrosion. Uses: making sheet metal and metal lathe.
A type of metal that contain little or no iron, e.g aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, tin.
A lustrous, silver-white, magnetic, lightweight metal which is very malleable, it has good thermal and electrical conductivity. Uses: kitchen utensils, furniture and fittings.
A lustrous, reddish-brown metal that is highly ductile and malleable. Uses: hot water pipes, electrical parts and decorative work.
A soft, malleable, heavy metal that is very easy to cut and work. Enabling it to be fitted over uneven surfaces. Uses: plumbing, flashings, container linings, weighing objects.
A metal that is a substitute for lead in flashings and linings. Uses: air vents, plating, etc.
A lustrous white, soft and malleable metal having a low melting point and is relatively unaffected by exposure to air. Uses: a base for alloys and coating for mild steel; rarely used in pure state.
What are the 6 types of ferrous metals?
- Wrought Iron
- Cast Iron
- Mud Steel
- Stainless Steel
- Tool and Alloy Steel
- Copper-bearing Steel
What are the 5 types of Non-ferrous metals?
A combination of 2 or more metals and other substances.
A copper with tin. Uses: pump units, marine fittings, gears and bearings.
Aluminum with copper and other metals. Uses: shelving systems, chair legs, pulleys, bolts, rivets, cladding.
Copper with zinc. Uses: Cabinet Hardware, screws, decorative work.
What are the 3 types of alloys?
PROPERTIES OF METAL
A slow hardening process, which takes place to certain alloys.
PROPERTIES OF METAL
Ability of metal to break under a sharp blow.
PROPERTIES OF METAL
A metal's capacity to transmit heat and electricity.
PROPERTIES OF METAL
A metal's ability to be stretched into fine wire without fracture.
PROPERTIES OF METAL
A metal's ability to regain to its original shape after deformation.
PROPERTIES OF METAL
A metal's property of becoming liquid when heated.
PROPERTIES OF METAL
A metal's resistance to deformation.
PROPERTIES OF METAL
Capacity to be extended in all directions without fracturing by rolling, hammering or beating.
PROPERTIES OF METAL
Resistance to a pulling force.
Tenacity or Cohesion
PROPERTIES OF METAL
Hardening of metal while it is being hammered or bent.
A method in which a coating material is applied on a metallic substrate.
Coating a metal with a non-transparent formulation containing pigments.
Coating a metal with a formulation based on a dissolved material which forms a transparent layer primarily after drying by evaporation of the solvent.
Covering a metal with plastic.
Plastic and Nylon Coating
The continuous and highly automated industrial process for efficiently coating coils of metal.
Single coating of any type of metal with no particular requirements for appearance, malleability, corrosion protection, etc. usually on the reverse side of the coated product.
Treatment of a metal with chemical solutions by dipping or spraying to build an oxide film containing chromates or phophates.
Chemical Conversion Coating
Application of a paint often pigmented with a corrosion inhibitor such as zinc chromate, after suitable pretreatment.
Application of a solution containing a resin, a chromate and an acid, which is allowed to dry on and provide the key for subsequent painting.
Single coating either with requirements on appearance, malleability, corrosion protection, subsequent painting, etc., or as a primer with special properties regarding adhesion and corrosion protection for post-painting applications.
Single Coat System
A system of coating comprising a primer or a base coat, possibly intermediate coat(s), and a top coat.
Multiple Coat System
Dry paint film of the coated product or the organic film metal laminate.
Organic film applied to a substrate to which an adhesive and, if appropriate, a primer has been applied beforehand.
A process of applying a thin coating of an expensive anti-corrosive metal.
What are the 5 types of metallic coating?
- Chrome Plate
- Nickel Plate
- Bronze Plate
- Silver Plate
- Zinc Plate
Chemical treatment to improve the optical reflectivity of a surface.
Polishing of a metal surface by immersion in a solution of chemical reagents.
Removal of oil or grease on metal, usually by a suitable organic solvent or an aqueous detergent.
Roughening of the surface of a metal by overall or selective dissolution in acid or caustic media.
The removal of a thin surface layer of a metal by chemical action, mainly by treatment in a caustic solution.
Electrochemical treatment to improve the optical reflectivity of a surface.
Polishing a metal surface by making it anodic in an appropriate electrolyte. Example, analok finish.
Metal with a coating produced by an electrolytic oxidation process in which the metal is converted to a mainly oxide coating having protective, decorative or functional properties.
A metal with a substantially colorless, translucent anodic oxidation coating.
Clear Anodized Metal
Anodized metal colored either during anodizing or by subsequent coloring processes.
Color Anodized Metal
Metal that has been anodized using an appropriate electrolyte which produces a colored coating during the anodizing process itself.
Integral Color Anodized Metal
Metal with an anodic oxidation coating that has been colored by the electrolytic deposition of a metal or metal oxide into the pore structure.
Electrolytically Colored Anodized Metal
Metal with an anodic oxidation coating colored by absorption of dye-stuff or pigments into the pore structure
Dyed Anodized Metal
Metal with an anodic oxidation coating that is colored by electrolytic coloring or produced by integral color anodizing followed by absorption dyeing.
Combination Color Anodized Metal
Metal with an anodic oxidation coating colored by means of optical interference effects.
Interference Color Anodized Metal
Anodized metal with a high specular reflectance as the primary characteristic.
Bright Anodized Metal
Anodizing where protection against corrosion or wear is the primary characteristic and appearance is secondary of of no importance.
Anodizing where a decorative finish with a uniform or an aesthetically pleasing appearance is the primary characteristic.
Anodizing to produce an architectural finish to be used in permanent, exterior and static situations where both appearance and long life are important.
Anodized metal on which the anodic oxidation coating has been produced with wear and/or abrasion resistance as the primary characteristic.
Hard Anodized Metal
Treatment of anodic oxidation coatings on metal to reduce porosity and the absorption capacity of the coating by hydrothermal processes carried out after anodizing.
Treatment of anodic oxidation coatings on metal to plug the pores and reduce the absorption capacity of the coating by chemical processes carried out a low temperatures after anodizing.
The part of the metal product covered or to be covered by the coating and for which the coating is essential for serviceability and/or appearance.
This process uses a colored powder that is given a positive electric charge. The metal part is given a negative electric charge. Then the powder is sprayed onto the metal, and the electrostatic charge allows the powder to stick to the metal part.
A means of applying decorations on metal by raising, molding or carving a surface design in relief.
A means of applying decorations on metal by carving cut designs.
The process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design.
A technique used to work metal into a raised design or pattern by sinking the front surface, used in combination with repousse which is the opposite, the design is raised through the reverse side.
A process of heating metal to restore it to its softest possible working state.
The process of treating steel to improve its corrosion-resistance. The metal is heated to create an oxide skin, then quenched in oil.
Production of metal shapes by pouring molten metal into molds.
Forcing malleable materials through holes to produce bars, sections or tubes.
Shaping hot metal by hammering.
Producing maximum hardness in high carbon steel by heating it to bright cherry red, then quenching it in water or brine.
Forming sheet metal to shape with a press tool.
A metal process in which a fast revolving sheet of ductile metal is forced over a wood or metal form.
Removing some of the brittleness from steel after it has been hardened.
Pulling ductile metals through holes in a plate, to reduce their cross-sectional areas.
A method of joining metals which is made by drilling a hole in the pieces of metal to be joined, then inserting and fastening nuts and bolts, rivets or screws.
Methods of making permanent connection in metals by applying a molten alloy between the joint faces.
Soldering and Brazing
An extremely strong means of joining metals through fusion.
• A climbing palm that thrives on Asiatic regions.
• It is pre-processed to produce round cores for making reed or wicker furniture.
• Thickest type of Rattan, over 25mm diameter
• Intermode of 25mm
• A type of Rattan with 15-25mm diameter.
• A type of Rattan that is less than 15mm diameter.
• Glossy, flexible, bright yellow.
• A type of Rattan that is less than 15mm diameter.
• Light cream appearance
What are the 4 different methods of bending rattan?
• Steam Bending Technique
• Blow Torch
• Metal Plate Heating
• Soaking on hot water
• Woody grass known as Bambusese.
• Stems called as: Culm
• Joints called as: Nodes
• Space between Nodes: Internodes
• Largest Palm in the Philippines
• Height reaches up to 20 meters
• Rich source of raw materials
• The tough outer covering of animals, fruits, seeds and nuts.
• Calcinated outer covering of the marine and land mollusk.
• Used for inlays: Mother of Pearl
Leather obtained from large animals such as cows, carabaos and horses.
Leather obtained from smaller animals such as calves, sheep, goats, pigs and alligators.
Leather obtained from pelts of reptiles such as snakes and lizards.
Which part of the coconut tree is the ideal part for production of furniture?
Harder part of the trunk
The fiber formed like a fabric in a coconut tree.
A by-product of coconut which shows good potential for the development of furniture, furnishings and Philippine products.
• A desirable and interesting material for furniture construction.
• More fragile than most plastic.
How thick should a glass material be in order to provide sufficient support?
1/2 inch thick
• A type of glass than is stronger than ordinary glass.
• Edges should be polished and rounded to eliminate sharp edges.
• Most common stone material for furniture.
• Tends to shatter less than glass but also tends to break along the veins.
• An expensive type of marble.
• Almost transulcent