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Flashcards in Materials for Furniture Construction Deck (225):
1

The most prevalent raw material for furniture industries. Can be converted into veneer, plywood and particle board which provides a defect-free, wide dimensions and a table materials.

Wood

2

Timber that is sawn or split in the form of beams, boards, joists, planks, esp. that which is smaller than heavy timber.

Lumber

3

Coniferous or cone-bearing, needle-leafed, usually evergreen tree.

Softwoods

4

These are deciduous or broad-leafed trees with the presence of pores, or vessels.

Hardwoods

5

A most expensive Philippine wood specie, used for furniture and panelings, for expensive flooring, door panels, stairs and plywood veneer and facings.

Narra

6

Philippine hardwood species used for posts and girders, or jambs attached to concrete and also for wooden decks having flooring and railings exposed to weather.

Yakal and Guijo

7

A Philippine softwood specie that is used for panelings, sidings, flooring and furniture. Also used for framings and trusses.

Pine Benguet

8

Philippine wood species that are most common lumber in the market. Used generally for framings, joists, trusses, nailers, etc.

Tanguile (Philippine Mahogany) and Apitong

9

A Philippine wood specie used for framings, chests, and jewel boxes.

White and Red Lauan

10

A Philippine hardwood specie for chests, jewel boxes, stair frames. It's finish is black w/ brownish streaks.

Kamagong

11

A Philippine wood specie that is used for panelings and plywood veneer. It's a wood specie similar to Walnut.

Dao

12

A Philippine wood specie that is similar to pine, and used for paneling. Not sturdy for structural elements.

Almaciga

13

A wood specie used to make "Santos".

Batikuling

14

A wood specie that is light grayish-brown to reddish brown in texture. Its striking grain figure and large open pores are its most distinct property.

Oak

15

A type of wood that is creamy white to light reddish-brown in color. Frequently straight-grained and tiny wood pores. Bird's eye pattern and special burl figures are also available.

Maple

16

A wood that is light gray-brown to dark purple-brown in color. Wide variety of plain and highly figured patterns.

Walnut

17

A wood that is cream color to light reddish-brown. It has visible resin canals and obvious growth rings.

Pine

18

A creamy white to light reddish-brown type of wood with extremely small pores.

Birch

19

A wood specie that is light to dark reddish-brown. It has straight grain and small individual pores.

Cherry

20

A wood specie that is grayish through creamy white through to a reddish-dark brown. It has distinct straight grains and open pores.

Ash

21

A wood specie that is yellowish-brown through reddish brown to dark red in color. Frequently highly figured grain pattern and open wood pores. Extremely stable making it perfect for table tops.

Mahogany

22

A very light brown hardwood. Distinct straight grain and open pores. Commonly used as bentwood.

Beech

23

A light yellow to brownish-yellow with green tinge wood. Even texture and straight grain pattern with barely visible pores.

Poplar

24

Tawny yellow to dark brown with frequent lighter and darker streaks. Pattern very similar to that of Walnut.

Teak

25

Creamy white to reddish brown wood. Occasional dark streaks(growing in different seasons) and large wood pores.

Pecan

26

Light brown to dark brown often containing shades of red; straight grain pattern with obvious light and dark boundaries. Excellent bending qualities.

Elm

27

Various shades of dark brown to dark purple; conspicuous dark streaks; large open wood pores. Commonly used in Chinese furniture.

Rosewood

28

Creamy white to yellowish with obvious differences between spring and summer growth. Pronounced resin canal, and wild grain markings make this a difficult wood to finish.

Fir

29

Deep reddish-brown wood with obvious alternating spring and summer growth rings.

Redwood

30

Light red with light colored streaks running throughout; knotty pattern and other natural markings are always present. Highly aromatic and moderately hard though brittle.

Cedar

31

Pale reddish-brown; obvious wide growth pattern and small wood pores. Fine textured and good shock resistance.

Sycamore

32

Pale to dark brown with occasional red streaks running throughout; large open wood pores.

Butternut

33

Creamy white to creamy brown wood with frequent reddish markings; faint growth rings and broad wood raise which are darker than the background wood. Very weak with a low resistance to shock.

Basswood

34

A method of drying wood wherein lumber is strip-piled at a slope on a solid foundation to allow air to circulate around every piece while sloping allows water to run off quickly.

Air-drying or Sun drying

35

A wood drying method where the wood is artificially dried to the correct moisture content.

Kiln Drying

36

The dimensions of a piece of wood before it is planed down.

Nominal Size

37

The dimensions of lumber after it has been dressed.

Actual Size

38

A piece of lumber 12 inches wide, 1 inch thick and 1 foot long.

Board Foot

39

What are the different types of wood grain structure?

- Straight grain
- Inter-locked grain
- Wavy or Curly grain

40

A wood grain structure where fibers are running in the same direction as the main axis of the tree.

Straight grain

41

A wood grain structure where grains are in successive layers and in opposite direction.

Inter-locked grain

42

A grain structure that are constantly changing in orientation so that a line drawn parallel to their direction appears as wavy lines.

Wavy or Curly Grain

43

A type of wood grain structure which results when a straight grained log is not sawn along its vertical axis.

Diagonal Grain

44

A type of wood grain structure when trees grow twisted. The board's fibers follow a course with a twist that is either left or right handed.

Spiral Grain

45

A type of wood grain structure wherein the board's fibers run approximately parallel with the vertical axis of the log from which it originated.

Straight Grain

46

This type of wood grain structure results when the direction of wood fibers has constantly changed.

Wavy Grain

47

A wood grain structure that have fibers at directions that are varying and irregular from the log's vertical axis.

Irregular Grain

48

A type of wood grain structure with grains that result from trees whose fibers lined up in opposite directions in each growth year.

Interlocked Grain

49

A wood grain structure when wood is cut parallel to the grain directions and tangent to the growth rings.

Plain/Tangential or Flat Grain

50

A wood grain structure when board is cut parallel to the grain direction but through the radius of the growth rings.

Quarter or Radial Grain

51

A wood grain structure when board is cut across the grain (perpendicular to the grain direction and the growth rings).

End Grain

52

The most common method of sawing a lumber because it produces the highest quantity of usable lumber. A method wherein the sawyer begins by sawing several boards from one side of the log, turns it 90 degrees and saws several more, and continues in this manner "sawing around" the log. Its boards show flat grain on their faces and quarter grain on the edges.

Plain Sawing

53

A method of sawing lumber wherein the sawyer cuts the logs in quarters, then slices each quarter into boards. Its boards show mostly quarter grain on their faces and flat grain on the edges.

Quarter Sawing

54

A method of sawing a lumber which is sometimes called sawing through and through. It produces much wider boards than other methods, and these boards show mostly mixed grain - flat grain near the center of the face and quarter grain near the edges.

Live Saw

55

These are in effect the basal stumps of incipient or cast-off branches in the living tree.

Knots

56

Small knots in wood 1/2 in (12.5mm) or under, often caused by the shedding of early branches. Usually allowable in prime timber.

Pin Knots

57

These are knots sliced through their length during sawing, and commonly known as 'slash knots'.

Spike or Splay Knots

58

These are dead knots which are still sound and difficult to dislodge, and often ringed with resin in softwood.

Encased Knots

59

2 or 3 knots springing from a common center.

Branched Knots

60

The lengthwise separation of the wood along the grain.

Shakes

61

A form of a wood shake defect wherein the log splits from the pith or heart radially along the medullary rays, usually indicating that the tree has passed its prime.

Radial Shakes

62

A form of a wood shake defect that project inwardly from a definite frost rib on the cambium. It is a result of a severe weather.

Frost Shakes

63

A form of a wood shake defect when the soft springwood of the log splits away from the harder summerwood, either during seasoning or through shearing stresses in the growing tree.

Tangential Shakes

64

When tangential shakes run along part of the annual ring only.

Cup Shakes

65

When tangential shakes run completely around the log.

Ring Shakes

66

A form of a wood shake defect caused by compression and not by splitting/shearing, while the actual rupture is across the grain and not with it as with all other shakes.

Cross Shakes

67

A natural wood defect that is sometimes known as resin pockets, they can appear either as thin veins or shallow cavities filled with resin. Caused by damage to the cambium layer in resinous woods.

Pitch Veins

68

A natural wood defect which are repeated damage to the cambium layer by small insects. It is often healed over with hark, and may show as small dots or patches of brown cork deeply buried in some woods.

Pitch Flecks

69

A natural wood defect that are patches of ingrowing bark, probably caused by exterior damage to the growing tree.

Rind Galls

70

A natural wood defect which shows patches of sapwood that survive within the heartwood and show as lighter patches.

Internal Sapwood

71

A wood defect caused either by fungal or insect attack irritating the cambium layers, and resulting in large rapid growths, usually at the base of the tree.

Burls/Burrs

72

Tissue formed over a wound in a tree resulting in unnatural growth incorporated in the normal wood growth.

Callus

73

These are dead sections in the branches of a tree caused by fungoid disease.

Canker

74

A depression in the outer surface of a log where the tree failed to renew following an injury. A partially heated fire scar.

Catface

75

An artificial wood defect when the plank hollows across the width forming a rounding on the under face, often due to incorrect piling.

Cupping or Rounding

76

A wood defect when the plank is curved like a bow throughout its length.

Bowing

77

A wood defect that is sometimes known as edge bend. The wood remains flat but bends edgewise on its own plane.

Springing

78

A wood defect wherein the plank twists on its longitudinal axis with the result that the long edges are straight, but the diagonals are curved. Usually known as ' in winding'.

Twisting

79

A wood defect when the butt end of the plank splits open, usually caused by too rapid drying or sometimes by too much temperature.

End Splitting

80

A wood defect when the wood is covered with small splits along the grain caused by too rapid drying in hot sun.

Sun Checking

81

The lifting of the wood in innumerable small layers caused by incorrect seasoning or sometimes due to structural weakness.

Flaking

82

A wood defect when the grain runs obliquely to the longitudinal axis caused by incorrect sawing.

Diagonal Grain

83

A defect in wood caused by too rapid drying resulting in the outside cells of the timber drying and hardening, sealing of moisture in the central part of the board.

Case Hardening

84

Severe internal stresses and subsequent checking of the wood fibers not visible from outside cause by continuous kiln drying of case hardened timber.

Honeycombing

85

The shrinking & warping of wood caused by too rapid kilning or too slow drying at high temperature.

Collapse

86

A type of wood finish that emphasize and enhance the charm of natural wood color and grain.

Transparent

87

A type of transparent wood finish that soaks into the wood pores to give a natural look and feel.

Penetrating Finishes

88

A type of transparent wood finish that seals wood pores for protection against water and other destructive elements.

Surface Coating

89

A transparent wood finish that is made from resins dissolved in ethyl alcohol. It forms a high-gloss film on the surface when dried.
(Resin + Ethyl Alcohol)

Clear Lacquer

90

A transparent wood finish made from various gums and resins dissolved in an oil or alcohol. It gives a relatively hard, tough and reasonably elastic finish.
(Resin+Oil)
Classified into 2 types, natural and synthetic

Varnish

91

A spirit varnish made by dissolving purified lac (a resinous secretion of the female of the lac insect) flakes in denatured alcohol. It adds a warm amber color to wood and can be affected by heat, example is it produces white rings under a hot bowl or mug.

(Lac Flakes + Denatured Alcohol)

Shellac

92

A transparent wood finish that can be achieved by simply using boiled linseed oil or various other oils.

Oil Stain Finish

93

A transparent plastic finish made of polyhydric alcohol esterified with oleic, linoleic, palmetic and stearic fatty acids and modified with tolyrene disocnynate and mineral spirits. Very tough, hard and flexible finish which has superior resistance to chipping, abrasion and dirt retention.

Polyurethane Finish

94

A wood finish that usually comes in paste form and liquid form, varies greatly in harness and durability. It is achieved by brushing, rubbing or spraying processed fatty acids from animals and vegetables, mineral sources combined with alcohol.

Wax or Films

95

A wood finish that alters coloring of the wood or accentuates its natural color without covering the grain.

Wood Stain Finish

96

A wood finish that results to lightening of the wood color to yellowish white and neutralizes the color making it noticeable. It is achieved by applying one of the various acids and chlorine compound pertained as bleaching agents.

Bleach Finish

97

A type of bleach finish that is excellent for removing chemicals, dyes, ink and water stains from wood surface if used full strength.

Chlorinated Laundry Bleach

98

A type of bleach finish best used not only on natural wood colors but also on many water and chemical stains.

Oxalic Acid

99

A fairly expensive and extremely strong bleach that can bring out really light tones on dark wood because of strength.

Two-Solution Bleaches

100

A wood finish that gives a solid finish for protection and decoration.

Opaque

101

A mixture of solid pigment suspended in a liquid vehicle, which when applied to a surface, forms an adherent continuous film which provides protection, decoration, sanitation, identification and other functional properties.

Paints and Enamels

102

What are the 4 ingredients of paints?

- Pigment (Imparts Color)
- Vehicle (Nonvolatile Fluid)
- Thinner (To dilute paint or varnish)
- Driers (Accelerates oxidation and hardening)

103

Made of thick veneer sheets glued together one on top of the other with grain of the sheets arranged crosswise.

Plywood

104

A series of wood core strips glued together side by side to form a slab which is sandwiched between outer layers of veneer or think plywood.

Plyboards

105

Composed of wood chips carefully graded, mixed with synthetic resin glue and either pressed or extruded into rigid, self supporting sheets of uniform thickness which are sanded down to close tolerances.

Particle Boards

106

A type of engineered wood product that is made out of wood fibers.

Fiber Boards

107

A board that is constructed similarly as fiber boards except that it has a thin outer pressed-melamine finish.

Melamine Boards

108

A material, usually a plastic polymer, which becomes soft when heated and hard when cooled.

Thermoplastic

109

A polymer that irreversibly becomes rigid when heated.

Thermosetting

110

The foaming of polyurethane isocyanate and polystyrene with suitable gassing agents to form rigid shell structures. Self-supporting chair shells, imitation moldings and wood carvings are made by these methods.

Rigid Foam Plastics

111

A type of rigid thermoset plastic foam that has a very high thermal resistance, low water absorption, low water vapor permeability and good adhesion. Used for thermal insulation for roofs, cavity walls, perimeter; refrigeration, pipe lagging.

Polyurethane

112

A type of rigid thermoset plastic foam that is relatively low resistance for given thickness. It has high strength and very good thermal stability. Used for insulation of flat roofs and core material for sandwich panels.

Phenol-formaldehyde (Phenolic Foam)

113

A type of rigid thermoset plastic foam that has high thermal resistance for a given thickness but low mechanical strength. High water absorption and high water vapor permeability. Used for cavity wall insulation.

Urea-formaldehyde

114

A type of rigid thermoset plastic foam that has good insulation efficiency. High strength, good chemical and moisture resistance. Used restrictively for spray applications for storage tanks and vessels, and as core material for sandwich panels.

Epoxy

115

A composite material or fibre-reinforced polymer made of a plastic reinforced by fine fibers made of glass.

GRP (Glass Reinforced Plastic)

116

A transparent thermoplastic often used in sheet form as a lightweight or shatter-resistant alternative to glass. It is available in clear transparent, pastel shades, full colors, and transfusing and fluorescent colors in thickness from 1/25 (1mm) in to 1/2 in (12.5mm), and up to 2 in (50mm) diameter.

Perspex or Acrylic Sheet

117

A fiber material that has universal uses for it can be cold drawn to 5 times its original strength, thus straightening the chain molecules and imparting great strength and excellent wear resistance. Used for furniture guides, sliders, rollers, ext. It is also used in knock-down fittngs as dowel pegs that can be glued into such loose-textured materials such as chipboard.

Nylon (Polyamide)

118

Composed of layers of craft paper impregnated with phenolic resins while the surface pattern can be purely decorative in an infinite range of designs or an exact simulation of real wood grains, is printed on a cover paper, and coated with a scratch-resistant surface of melamine resin.

Decorative Plastic Laminates

119

A type of metal which is composed mainly of iron with small additions of other metals or substances, e.g wrought iron, cast iron, mild steel and carbon steel.

Ferrous Metal

120

An iron with traces of silicate. It is easily worked and is tough and ductile. Used as decorative work such as screens and gates.

Wrought Iron

121

An iron with small amounts of carbon, silicon, sulfur etc. Used as cylinder blocks, piston rings, vice/vise bodies, fire backs, manhole covers.

Cast Iron

122

Iron with up to 0.3 % carbon. It is used for general purpose metal used in bars, rods, sheet, rolled section and angle form; nuts, bolts, screws, tubing, furniture construction.

Mud Steel

123

Steel with chromium and nickel. Uses: cutlery, furniture frames.

Stainless Steel

124

A ferrous metal that has a composition varied by addition of different elements such as nickel, chromium, copper and manganese to molten steel. Uses: saws, chisels, plane irons, scissors, knives, hammer heads, springs

Tool and allow steel

125

A ferrous metal that has a high resistance to corrosion. Uses: making sheet metal and metal lathe.

Copper-bearing steel

126

A type of metal that contain little or no iron, e.g aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, tin.

Non-Ferrous Metal

127

A lustrous, silver-white, magnetic, lightweight metal which is very malleable, it has good thermal and electrical conductivity. Uses: kitchen utensils, furniture and fittings.

Aluminum

128

A lustrous, reddish-brown metal that is highly ductile and malleable. Uses: hot water pipes, electrical parts and decorative work.

Copper

129

A soft, malleable, heavy metal that is very easy to cut and work. Enabling it to be fitted over uneven surfaces. Uses: plumbing, flashings, container linings, weighing objects.

Lead

130

A metal that is a substitute for lead in flashings and linings. Uses: air vents, plating, etc.

Zinc

131

A lustrous white, soft and malleable metal having a low melting point and is relatively unaffected by exposure to air. Uses: a base for alloys and coating for mild steel; rarely used in pure state.

Tin

132

What are the 6 types of ferrous metals?

- Wrought Iron
- Cast Iron
- Mud Steel
- Stainless Steel
- Tool and Alloy Steel
- Copper-bearing Steel

133

What are the 5 types of Non-ferrous metals?

- Aluminum
- Copper
- Lead
- Zinc
- Tin

134

A combination of 2 or more metals and other substances.

Alloy

135

A copper with tin. Uses: pump units, marine fittings, gears and bearings.

Bronze

136

Aluminum with copper and other metals. Uses: shelving systems, chair legs, pulleys, bolts, rivets, cladding.

Duraluminum

137

Copper with zinc. Uses: Cabinet Hardware, screws, decorative work.

Brass

138

What are the 3 types of alloys?

- Bronze
- Duraluminum
- Brass

139

PROPERTIES OF METAL
A slow hardening process, which takes place to certain alloys.

Age-hardening

140

PROPERTIES OF METAL
Ability of metal to break under a sharp blow.

Brittleness

141

PROPERTIES OF METAL
A metal's capacity to transmit heat and electricity.

Conductivity

142

PROPERTIES OF METAL
A metal's ability to be stretched into fine wire without fracture.

Ductility

143

PROPERTIES OF METAL
A metal's ability to regain to its original shape after deformation.

Elasticity

144

PROPERTIES OF METAL
A metal's property of becoming liquid when heated.

Fusibility

145

PROPERTIES OF METAL
A metal's resistance to deformation.

Hardness

146

PROPERTIES OF METAL
Capacity to be extended in all directions without fracturing by rolling, hammering or beating.

Malleability

147

PROPERTIES OF METAL
Resistance to a pulling force.

Tenacity or Cohesion

148

PROPERTIES OF METAL
Hardening of metal while it is being hammered or bent.

Work-hardening

149

A method in which a coating material is applied on a metallic substrate.

Coating

150

Coating a metal with a non-transparent formulation containing pigments.

Painting/Enameling

151

Coating a metal with a formulation based on a dissolved material which forms a transparent layer primarily after drying by evaporation of the solvent.

Lacquering

152

Covering a metal with plastic.

Plastic and Nylon Coating

153

The continuous and highly automated industrial process for efficiently coating coils of metal.

Coil Coatng

154

Single coating of any type of metal with no particular requirements for appearance, malleability, corrosion protection, etc. usually on the reverse side of the coated product.

Backing Coat

155

Treatment of a metal with chemical solutions by dipping or spraying to build an oxide film containing chromates or phophates.

Chemical Conversion Coating

156

Application of a paint often pigmented with a corrosion inhibitor such as zinc chromate, after suitable pretreatment.

Priming

157

Application of a solution containing a resin, a chromate and an acid, which is allowed to dry on and provide the key for subsequent painting.

Pretreatment Priming

158

Single coating either with requirements on appearance, malleability, corrosion protection, subsequent painting, etc., or as a primer with special properties regarding adhesion and corrosion protection for post-painting applications.

Single Coat System

159

A system of coating comprising a primer or a base coat, possibly intermediate coat(s), and a top coat.

Multiple Coat System

160

Dry paint film of the coated product or the organic film metal laminate.

Organic Coating

161

Organic film applied to a substrate to which an adhesive and, if appropriate, a primer has been applied beforehand.

Film Coating

162

A process of applying a thin coating of an expensive anti-corrosive metal.

Metallic Coating

163

What are the 5 types of metallic coating?

- Chrome Plate
- Nickel Plate
- Bronze Plate
- Silver Plate
- Zinc Plate

164

Chemical treatment to improve the optical reflectivity of a surface.

Chemical Brightening

165

Polishing of a metal surface by immersion in a solution of chemical reagents.

Chemical Polishing

166

Removal of oil or grease on metal, usually by a suitable organic solvent or an aqueous detergent.

Degreasing

167

Roughening of the surface of a metal by overall or selective dissolution in acid or caustic media.

Etching

168

The removal of a thin surface layer of a metal by chemical action, mainly by treatment in a caustic solution.

Pickling

169

Electrochemical treatment to improve the optical reflectivity of a surface.

Electrochemical Brightening

170

Polishing a metal surface by making it anodic in an appropriate electrolyte. Example, analok finish.

Electropolishing

171

Metal with a coating produced by an electrolytic oxidation process in which the metal is converted to a mainly oxide coating having protective, decorative or functional properties.

Anodized Metal

172

A metal with a substantially colorless, translucent anodic oxidation coating.

Clear Anodized Metal

173

Anodized metal colored either during anodizing or by subsequent coloring processes.

Color Anodized Metal

174

Metal that has been anodized using an appropriate electrolyte which produces a colored coating during the anodizing process itself.

Integral Color Anodized Metal

175

Metal with an anodic oxidation coating that has been colored by the electrolytic deposition of a metal or metal oxide into the pore structure.

Electrolytically Colored Anodized Metal

176

Metal with an anodic oxidation coating colored by absorption of dye-stuff or pigments into the pore structure

Dyed Anodized Metal

177

Metal with an anodic oxidation coating that is colored by electrolytic coloring or produced by integral color anodizing followed by absorption dyeing.

Combination Color Anodized Metal

178

Metal with an anodic oxidation coating colored by means of optical interference effects.

Interference Color Anodized Metal

179

Anodized metal with a high specular reflectance as the primary characteristic.

Bright Anodized Metal

180

Anodizing where protection against corrosion or wear is the primary characteristic and appearance is secondary of of no importance.

Protective Anodizing

181

Anodizing where a decorative finish with a uniform or an aesthetically pleasing appearance is the primary characteristic.

Decorative Anodizing

182

Anodizing to produce an architectural finish to be used in permanent, exterior and static situations where both appearance and long life are important.

Architectural Anodizing

183

Anodized metal on which the anodic oxidation coating has been produced with wear and/or abrasion resistance as the primary characteristic.

Hard Anodized Metal

184

Treatment of anodic oxidation coatings on metal to reduce porosity and the absorption capacity of the coating by hydrothermal processes carried out after anodizing.

Sealing

185

Treatment of anodic oxidation coatings on metal to plug the pores and reduce the absorption capacity of the coating by chemical processes carried out a low temperatures after anodizing.

Cold Impregnation

186

The part of the metal product covered or to be covered by the coating and for which the coating is essential for serviceability and/or appearance.

Significant Surface

187

This process uses a colored powder that is given a positive electric charge. The metal part is given a negative electric charge. Then the powder is sprayed onto the metal, and the electrostatic charge allows the powder to stick to the metal part.

Powder-Coating

188

A means of applying decorations on metal by raising, molding or carving a surface design in relief.

Embossing

189

A means of applying decorations on metal by carving cut designs.

Engraving

190

The process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design.

Etching

191

A technique used to work metal into a raised design or pattern by sinking the front surface, used in combination with repousse which is the opposite, the design is raised through the reverse side.

Chasing

192

A process of heating metal to restore it to its softest possible working state.

Annealing

193

The process of treating steel to improve its corrosion-resistance. The metal is heated to create an oxide skin, then quenched in oil.

Bluing

194

Production of metal shapes by pouring molten metal into molds.

Casting

195

Forcing malleable materials through holes to produce bars, sections or tubes.

Extruding

196

Shaping hot metal by hammering.

Forging

197

Producing maximum hardness in high carbon steel by heating it to bright cherry red, then quenching it in water or brine.

Hardening

198

Forming sheet metal to shape with a press tool.

Pressing

199

A metal process in which a fast revolving sheet of ductile metal is forced over a wood or metal form.

Spinning

200

Removing some of the brittleness from steel after it has been hardened.

Tempering

201

Pulling ductile metals through holes in a plate, to reduce their cross-sectional areas.

Drawing

202

A method of joining metals which is made by drilling a hole in the pieces of metal to be joined, then inserting and fastening nuts and bolts, rivets or screws.

Mechanical Method

203

Methods of making permanent connection in metals by applying a molten alloy between the joint faces.

Soldering and Brazing

204

An extremely strong means of joining metals through fusion.

Welding

205

• A climbing palm that thrives on Asiatic regions.
• It is pre-processed to produce round cores for making reed or wicker furniture.

a. Bamboo
b. Abaca
c. Rattan
d. Buri

c. Rattan

206

• Thickest type of Rattan, over 25mm diameter
• Intermode of 25mm

a. Tumalim
b. Palasan
c. Sika
d. Panlis

b. Palasan

207

• A type of Rattan with 15-25mm diameter.

a. Tumalim
b. Palasan
c. Sika
d. Panlis

a. Tumalim

208

• A type of Rattan that is less than 15mm diameter.
• Glossy, flexible, bright yellow.

a. Tumalim
b. Palasan
c. Sika
d. Panlis

c. Sika

209

• A type of Rattan that is less than 15mm diameter.
• Light cream appearance

a. Tumalim
b. Palasan
c. Sika
d. Panlis

d. Panlis

210

What are the 4 different methods of bending rattan?

• Steam Bending Technique
• Blow Torch
• Metal Plate Heating
• Soaking on hot water

211

• Woody grass known as Bambusese.
• Stems called as: Culm
• Joints called as: Nodes
• Space between Nodes: Internodes

Bamboo

212

• Largest Palm in the Philippines
• Height reaches up to 20 meters
• Rich source of raw materials

Buri

213

• The tough outer covering of animals, fruits, seeds and nuts.
• Calcinated outer covering of the marine and land mollusk.
• Used for inlays: Mother of Pearl

Shells

214

Leather obtained from large animals such as cows, carabaos and horses.

a. Skins
b. Hides
c. Kips

b. Hides

215

Leather obtained from smaller animals such as calves, sheep, goats, pigs and alligators.

a. Skins
b. Hides
c. Kips

a. Skins

216

Leather obtained from pelts of reptiles such as snakes and lizards.

a. Skins
b. Hides
c. Kips

c. Kips

217

Which part of the coconut tree is the ideal part for production of furniture?

Harder part of the trunk

218

The fiber formed like a fabric in a coconut tree.

Ginit

219

A by-product of coconut which shows good potential for the development of furniture, furnishings and Philippine products.

Cocoshell

220

• A desirable and interesting material for furniture construction.
• More fragile than most plastic.

Glass

221

How thick should a glass material be in order to provide sufficient support?

1/2 inch thick

222

• A type of glass than is stronger than ordinary glass.
• Edges should be polished and rounded to eliminate sharp edges.

Tempered Glass

223

• Most common stone material for furniture.
• Tends to shatter less than glass but also tends to break along the veins.

Marble

224

• An expensive type of marble.
• Almost transulcent

Calcatta Marble

225

• An extremely porous marble.
• Filled and polished before use.

Travertine Marble