Flashcards in MCAT Psych Soc Deck (210)
What are the 3 unique variables (aside from dependent and indepentent variables)?
Confounding variable--> affects both independant and dependant variables. Moderating Variable--> changes the intensity of relationship between the two variables. Mediating Variable--> Providing a mechanistic lick between two variables.
Describe Positive and negative control groups.
Positive Control groups compares two known things with one another. Negative control groups control validity of things, such as, the use of a medication compared with a placebo and those who do not use said medication.
What is Social Desirability Bias?
Social Desirability Bias --> A tendency to reply to a question is a way that is seen as socially acceptable.
What studies have a potential for bias?
ALL study's have the potential for bias
What is the term used to describe motivation behid addictive behavior?
Opponent Process theory-->A description of motivation behind addictive behavior.
What is the definition of availability heuristic?
Available Heuristic --> Using readily available information--rather than information that would need to be gathered--to form and opinion and make a decision.
What is the Fantasy Factor?
Fantasy Factor --> A developement of mental images or lists of things that stimulate a person to behave a certain way to hopefully make the fantasy come true.
What is valence?
Valence --> value that a person will set on a reenforement or reward, which is ususally based on peoples wants and needs.
What is the definition of mores? What is the definition for formal and informal norms?
Mores--> The essential or characteristic of customs of communities. Informal and formal norms--> Formal norms are hard, written out, or well know and spoken of norms of society (they are the most specific and clearly stated of the norms). Informal norms are those perceived or picked up via social cues that are put into practice but are generally used by a population.
What is inclusive fitness?
Inclusive fitness--> Self-sacrificing behavior benefiting relatives. (essentially)
What are the general affects of Dopamine on the body?
Dopamine--> Involved in reward pathways. Also, involved with certain motor functions. Too much or too little has adverse affects on the body.
This mnemonic has to do with what neurons do and where they are located in the spinal cord. Memorize the mnemonic SAME DAVE!
SAME DAVE--> Sensory neurons are afferent neurons while Motor neurons are Efferent neurons (space) Dorsal location for Afferent neurons and Ventral location for Efferent neurons.
What is the purpose and function of magnocelluar cells?
Magnocellular cells--> Have low spatial resolution but high temporal resolution, allowing them to form a basis for our detection of objects in motion.
What is proprioception?
Proprioception--> Is the sense of where one's own body parts are in space
What is Top-Down Processing?
Top-down Processing----> Uses previous experiences and expectations to make decisions. It is often used to recognize something familiar without having to look at all of its individual parts.
What is the function of mechanoreceptors?
Mechanoreceptors---> Where touch is detected, or neurons that specialize in mechanial input.
What is the theory of general adaptation syndrome?
Theory of General Adaptation Syndrome---> Involves stages that occur in the following sequence: 1) alarm 2) resistance and finally either 3) exhaustion or recovery.
What is Anterograde Amnesia?
Anterograde Amnesia----> The inabliity to form new memories after and accident (usually head trauma).
What is operant conditioning?
Operant conditioning----> The pairing of reinforcement with a learned behavior.
What does neuroplsticity have to do with learning and remembering information?
Neuroplasticity is the brains ability to form multiple synaptic connnections about information. For example, using all of ones senses rather than just a few will help solidify new synaptic connections much faster.
What is State-dependent retrieval?
State-dependent retrieval is the idea that a persons memory and retrieval will be best when both the physical and psychological aspects are the same for both learning and retrieval.
What is the Palmer Grasp Reflex?
The Palmer grasp reflex--> When stroke your finger across a baby's palm, their had will grab your finger. Also, another two important reflexes are the Rooting and Sucking reflexes. Very self explanitory.
What is the Moro Reflex?
What is the Moro Reflex?The Moro Reflex--> In response to being strartled, a baby will extend its arms and legs, through its head back, and cry.
What is the Babinski Reflex?
The Babinski Reflex--> When a baby's foot is stroked, its' big toe bends up, while the other tows fan out.
What are the medulla oblongata and pons, and where are they found? What is their role?
The medulla oblongota, controls general autonomic functions while the pons acts as a transition point between the medulla and the rest of the brain. The Pons, however, also has control over things like sleep, respiration, bladder control, taste, balance, and swallowing.
What is--and where is it located--Wernicke's Area?
Wernicke's area (located in the temporal lobe) is the part of the brain that is involved with language comprhension
What is (and where is it located), Broca's Area?
Broca's Area, part of the frontal lobe, is involved with actual language production and speaking
What is Bottom-up processing?
It's where you begin taking in small pieces of information (based of of sensory feelings in that moment) to create a whole picture in which to make a decision with.
What is attrition bias?
It's where participants dropout before the study ends.