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Flashcards in MCM Stem Cell Application - Kinde Deck (24):
1

Describe immortal strand hypothesis 14

When a stem cell divides it keeps the original DNA in the future stem cell and the new DNA is added to the cell that will be differentiated

2

Describe totipotent, give an example 6

Ex. Zygote (embryonic stem cell)

Gives rise to all cells of an organism

3

Describe pluripotent, give an example 6

Ex. ICM of the Blastocyst (embryonic stem cell)

Gives rise to all cells of the embryo and adult tissue

4

Describe multipotent, give an example 6

Ex. Various tissue (Adult stem cells)

Gives rise to different cells types of a particular lineage

5

Describe founder stem cells 10

More prevalent in skin than smaller organs

Fixed number of divisions, defines how many stem cells a tissue will have

6

Describe transit amplifying cells 11

A differentiated cell with fixed amount of divisions

Gives rise to the actual differentiate tissue

7

What are some main characteristics of stem cells? 5

Undergo slow division

Not terminally differentiated

Can divide without limit

8

What potential does Cord blood stem cells have?

Multipotency

9

How do teratomas form? 20

When we take embryonic stem cells out of the embryo and implant they have no direction and therefore form teratomas

Because they can form anything teratomas form all sorts of weird things like teeth and hair

10

Correlation box – Stem cells (p 319) How do embryonic stem cells differ from adult stem cells?

Two types --> embryonic & adult

Embryonic --> Pluripotent

Adult:
are specific to the tissue in which they reside

Evolve through many steps that rely on growth factors

11

Correlation box – Induced pluripotent stem cells. What kind of potency do zygotes and ICM of blastocysts have? How can an adult stem cell become ES-like?

Zygote --> totipotent

ICM of blastocyst --> Pluripotent

Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, and Lin28 --> can induce adult differentiated to become ES-like

12

What transcription factors are essential for maintenance of pluripotent cells? 29

Nanog

Oct4

Sox2

FoxD3

13

What would cause the differentiation of ES cells into an adipocyte? 25

Retinoic acid + insulin + thyroid hormone

14

What would cause the differentiation of ES cells into a neuron?

Retinoic acid

15

What are the limitations with adult stem cells? 31

Can not make them ES cells and they have limited products they can become

16

Describe hematopoietic and stromal stem cell differentiation 32

Hematopoietic (HSC) --> Blood components

Stromal Stem Cell (MSC) --> Connective tissue and other tissue

17

What are mesenchymal stem cells derived from? 33

bone marrow and adipose derived

18

Where are stem cells derived from? 19

Derived from the blastocyst stage

19

What is the therapeutic potential of stem cells 26, 28

Reliable and highly reproducible result

Can solve organ rejection problems

Could help in: Parkinson’s, diabetes, and mycocardial infarction

20

What are the challenges associated with stem cells 39, 40

Immune response – rejection (graft vs host)

Ethics

Adult stem cells are multi potent and are not as good as ES (pluripotent)

21

What is somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), what is the process? 43

Produces cells that aren’t rejected using cloning methods with ES technology

Remove the nucleus from an egg cell and fuse the SCNT cell containing the SCNT nucleus and eventually extract the ICM to produce pluripotent cells

22

What are the combinations of transcription factors that can be used to induce iPS? 46

1. Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, Klf4
2. Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4
3. Oct3/4, Sox2, N-myc, Klf4
4. Oct3/4, Sox2, Lin28, Nanog

23

What potency does an iPS cell have? 18

iPS cells are pluripotent

24

What growth factors are FOUND in pluripotent cells? 29

Cripto and GDF-3