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Flashcards in MCM Test 1 Deck (147):
1

What makes up a nucleotide?

Phosphate group, nitrogenous base, sugar

2

Which nucleotides are purines?

Adenine, Guanine

3

Which nucleotides are pyrimidines?

Thymine, Cytosine, Uracil

4

Between which molecules are phosphodiester bonds created?

Between a sugar (deoxyribose or ribose) and phosphate of the next nucleotide.

5

What is mRNA?

Messenger RNA. Transcribed from DNA and will be translated to a protein. Carries genetic code for protein.

6

What is rRNA?

Ribosomal RNA. Structural and functional components of the ribosome.

7

Which carbon contains or lacks a -OH group that characterizes the sugar as a ribose or deoxyribose?

2' carbon. Deoxyribose has -H while ribose has -OH at 2' spot.

8

What is tRNA?

Transfer RNA. Helps incorporate amino acids into polypeptide chain.

9

Where is pre-modified RNA found in a eukaryote?

Nucleus

10

Where is a N-glycosidic bond formed?

Between nitrogenous base and sugar.

11

What is RNAse H?

Machinery in DNA replication.
Replaces RNA primer with DNA

12

Senesence

When a cell is tagged to no longer duplicate
Related to telomeres degrading into coding DNA

13

Nucleosome

contains 8 histones wrapped by DNA.
histones= +
DNA= -

14

Heterochromatic v Euchromatin

Heterochromatin- condensed, silenced genes
usually on periphery of nucleus
Euchromatin- accessible to transcription/replication

15

Epigenetics

Histones have tails that can be modified to change chromatin structure
Modifications passed down
proteins maintain histone changes.

16

How is RNA polymerase different from DNA polymerase

RNA poly:
can start without primer
has intrinsic helices function
is more error prone

17

Types of RNA Polymerase

RNA Polymerase 1= rRNA
RNA Polymerase 2= All protein coding genes
RNA Polymerase 3= tRNA

remember 123 RAT= rRNA, All, tRNA

18

Initiating Transcription

TFIID- recruiter first and contains TATA binding protein (TBP), activates RNA poly II --> TFIIB, TFIIF, TFIIE, TFIIH

TFIIH- phosphorylates SER 5 on RNA Pol tail which initiates it.

other factors fall off and RNA Pol is released from promoter.

19

5' capping

Methylated guanine cap added to 5' end
RNA pol carries proteins that are transferred at specific time.
Capping protein- binds to tail when SER 5 is
phosphorylated
Enzymes
Phosphotase- removes Pi from 5' end
Guanine transferase- adds GMP
Methyl transferase- adds methyl

20

Splicing mechanism

specific A in intron attacks 5' end and covalently bonds
3' exon end will attack 5' of other part
GU and AG are coming beginning/end of intron
Machinery: splicesome

21

Splicesome

protein and RNA molecules
Assists with splicing.

22

Poly A tail

RNA poly II recognizes poly A and cleavage signals

cstF and CpsF travel with RNA poly and get transferred to 3' end

CstF= Cleavage stimulating factor
CpsF= cleavage and polyadenylating factor

additional poly A bind proteins attach add length and shape

23

What does a mRNA need to be transported out of nucleus?

Nuclear export receptor

24

Transcription Factors

Bind to specific DNA upstream of promoter

two domains
DNA binding domain- binds specific DNA sequence
Activation domain- interacts with transcription factors
to initiate transcription

25

What are 3 ways to regulate transcription?

activators- bind to certain sequence to induce transcr.
repressors- bind to certain sequence to repress gene
Chromatin remodeling- change chromatin condensation
ex. HAT and HDAC

26

HAT

Histone acetyltransferase- coactivator adds acetyl group to histones to regulate transcription, accessible chromatin

27

HDAC

Histone deaceytlase- corepressor, remove acetyl, condense chromatin

28

CpG island

CG base pairs with methylated cytosine= condensed DNA

part of DNA methylation

29

DNA interference

dsRNA cleaved, finds complimentary strand and silence it

RISC= destroy
RITS= silence

30

3 periods of embryonic development

Early period- 0-2 weeks, low sensitivity, high mortality rate

Embryonic period- 3-8, high sensitivity, organs being made

Fetal period 9-38 weeks, decreasing sensitivity, functional growth

31

What kind of cells are created from meiosis 2?

haploid cells

32

when does cross over take place

prophase 1 of meiosis 1

33

Origin of gamete forming cells?

Primordial germ cell arise from epiblast (week 2)
Migrate to yolk sac (week 3)
Migrate to posterior abdominal wall to the genital ridge (week 4-6)

34

Male gametogenesis

primordial germ --> spermatogonium --> primary spermatocyte (meiosis I) --> secondary sperm. (meiosis II) --> spermatid > mature spermatozoa

35

Oogenesis

primordial germ > oogonium > primary oocyte STOP IN Prophase I

upon puberty

primary oocyte > secondary oocyte STOP in metaphase 2

if fertilized, meiosis 2 completes and becomes ovum.

36

Follicle development

primordial follicle, squamous cells thicken to granolas
primary follicle (once zona pell. forms)
Secondary follicle when antrum appears
Follicle matures midway through female cycle (day 14)
Graafin Follicle- when antrum grows and granolas
cells form cumulus oorphourus
Follicle bursts-- secondary oocyte goes to pelvic cavity
and picked up by timbre of tubes
Follicle becomes corpus luteum

37

When and Why does the antrum appear in follicular development?

Appears when it's a secondary follicle.

Because theca interna is secreting fluid.

38

name the Gonadotropins during female reproductive cycle and what they effect.

FSH- works on growing follicle, ovulation
LH- maturation of follicle, ovulation, corpus luteum

39

Where are certain GLUT transporters found?

GLUT 1- most cells (RBC, nervous)
GLUT 2- liver, B pancreas
GLUT 3- most cells
GLUT 4- skeletal, adipose--- insulin regulated

40

Normal blood glucose levels

range: 4-6 mM (72-110 mg/dL)
Absolute 5mM (90 mg/dL)

41

Hexokinase

glucose --> glucose-6 phosphate

inhibited by G6P

42

Glucokinase

In liver with hexokinase (does same thing)

Inhibited by G6P, but insulin can override that

43

PFK 1

Phosphofruktokinase-- rate limiting enzyme for glycolysis

Fruktose 6P > fruktose 1, 6 bisP

high levels AMP, lets process happen
High levels of ATP or Citrate will inhibit enzyme
Glucagon inhibits

44

PFK II

In liver, if PFK-I is inhibited it can turn it on

Insulin turns PFK II on, fructose 6P > fructose 2,6 P
fruc 2,6P turns PFKI on.

Glucagon inhibits PFK II

45

Pyruvate Kinase

PEP > Pyruvate, creates ATP (substrate level phosphorylation)

Most common deficiency in glycolytic pathway

46

Why do we need two pathways in red blood cell

Glycolysis- provide ATP, Cation transfer, membrane impaired

HMS- Provides NADP, picks up electrons (now NADPH) so metHb > Hb and can bind oxygen

47

Role of 2,3 BPG in erythrocytes

increases oxygen release because it lowers Hb binding affinity for O2.
enhance oxygen delivery in

48

Two steps to charge tRNA?
what is the enzyme?

1. ATP hydrolysis to add AMP to amino acid
2. amino-acyltrnatrnasynthetase adds AA to tRNA

49

Antibiotics that bind to SMALL subunit of ribosome?

1. tetracycline
2. spectinomycin
3.hygromycin B
4.streptomycin

50

Antibiotics that bind to LARGE subunit of ribosome?

1.streptogramin B
2. erythromycin
3.chloramphenicol

51

Initiation of translation?

met tRNA and small subunit find concuss sequence, initator factors
slide to find AUG
Large subunit joins
Elongates

52

Termination of translation?

Reach stop codon, release factor binds to A site, Water added and breaks chain, machinery dissociates

53

Chaperone (heat shock) proteins

HSP70- fold cotranslationally, binds to hydrophobic and assits folding, has a backup system, uses ATP
HSP60- capsule like, post translational, has hydrophilic inside to help place hydrophobic in middle. uses ATP
Calmexin- chemical modification, uses glucose, if improperly folded adds glucose and does it again

54

proteosome

19-S cap contains unfoldases
cylinder chops it up

55

How to mark protein for destruction?

1. Activate enzyme to add ubiquitin
2. use degradation signal-- phosphorylation, unmasking

56

Unfolded protein response

Creates cascade that turns genes on for specific chaperone

57

what happens in cell during G1/S phase

Mitogen > G1/S cyclin > binds to G1/S Cdk > phosphorylates Rb > releases EIIF (transcription factor)> turns on genes.

58

What happens during S phase of cell cycle

S cyclin produced > activates S Cdk > Phosphorylates ORC > Releases Cdc6 > origin site open for replication machinery

59

M phase

1. M Cdk Phosphorylates- lamin, cohesin, condensin
2. MCdk turns on proteins to trigger microtubule arrangement. centromeres duplicate, polarize, attach to chromosomes
3. Chromosomes line up at metaphase with different microtubules
4. MCdk phosphorylates APC > degrades securin > releases seperase > cleaves cohesin
5. Telophase: RhoA > ROCK and formin> actin and myosin> contractile ring assembled.

60

What are the 3 types of protein transports?

Gated- cytosol to/from nucleus
Transmembrane- cytosol to anything except nucleus
Vesicular transport- between organelles

61

Describe Gated transport (import)

Through nuclear pore complexes, uses Ran GTP. Protein needs nuclear localizing signal

Import- protein attaches to receptor, brought into cell. Ran-GTP attaches to receptor and displaces protein. Receptor moves outside and hydrolysis happens on cytosol face. Receptor now ready for new protein.

62

Describe transport out of nucleus.

Through nuclear pore complex. Uses Ran-GTP. Protein needs nuclear export signal.

protein binds with receptor with Ran-GTP. Moves through nuclear pore. Hydrolysis of GTP happens at cytosol face. Protein is unloaded and receptor goes back.

63

Describe import of proteins into the mitochondria.

TOM- outer membrane complex (has receptor attached). TIM 23- Inner membrane

TOM recognizes protein signal and binds to it. brings into intermembrane space, and also through TIM 23. Translocation to matrix.

Signal peptidase cuts signal off.

64

What is Signal Peptidase?

enzyme that cleaves signals on proteins once they are transported

65

Role of Pex19?

Help arrange peroxisome

66

Describe peroxisome import

Proteins have signal sequence, importin (enzyme on membrane) binds to sequence and imports protein

67

2 varieties of transport to ER.

Cotranslational- translated on rough ER put directly into ER
post translational-transcribed in cytosol, then moved to ER.

68

How does cotranslational transport happen

ribosome translating protein, SRP recognizes this sequence and binds. SRP receptor binds SRP/protein and feeds it to a translocation channel. two particles come off. protein moved inside and signal cleaved.

SRP- signal recogntition particle
SRP receptor- in ER membrane

69

How to get protein to ER membrane?

Protein has internal signal sequence. side (N or C terminus) closer to the + charged side will stick in cytosol.

70

Coated vesicle proteins and where they go.

Clathrin- from plasma membrane and between endosomal and golgi compartments. Receptors shoot inward and bind protein/adaptor. Bud off. membrane proteins surrounding vesicle may fall off.
COPI- early in secretory pathway. From Golgi
COPII- early in secretory pathway. From ER

71

How do vesicles bind to target?

Need: Rab GTP, Rab effector, V-snare, and tsnare.

1. Tethering. Rab GTP (on vesicle) interacts with Rab effector
2. docking. v snare (on vessicle) winds with t snare (target)

Rab directs to right spot on membrane. snares help with fusion

72

KDEL

KDEL receptors-- help return proteins to ER. There are some in ER but more in Golgi
Proteins have higher affinity for KDEL in golgi than ER. Allows for retrieval to ER.

73

Describe retrieval of proteins to ER.

proteins need a KDEL sequence signal and bind to KDEL.

KDELs are in membrane of golgi and ER. Once bound it goes with vesicle, coated appropriately for transport.

74

How does the Golgi modify proteins for transport

Different processing happens in different compartments

Usually adds oligosaccharide to protein (covalent modification)

75

Transporting protein to lysosome

protein in golgi
1. Add Manose 6 phosphate
2. M6P receptor (on golgi membrane) binds it.
3. form vesicle (clathrin coat), goes to endosome> lysosome

76

LDL transport example

LDL receptors bud off and go back to plasma membrane before reach lysosome.

77

Specialized endosome recycling

GLUT 4 receptors example. Specialized recycling requires receptor on membrane

Insulin binds to receptor which stimulates GLUTS to bud from endosomes and go to plasma membrane.

78

Types of exocytosis

Constitutive- not regulated, always happening. Ex. replenish plasma membrane cells.

Regulated- something is packaged but needs hormone stimulation before it will be released. ex. neurotransmitters
1. signal mediated diversion to lysosomes
2. signal mediated diversion to secretory vessicles.

79

Protein folding road map

Folding > Maintenance > Aggregation > clearance by degradation

80

2 Quality Control Systems

1. Ubiquitin proteosome system: targets single proteins soon after ribosomal release
2. Autophogy(sp?) degrade proteins that are longer lived, targets aggregates..

81

2 major ways misfolding can cause dysfunction in cells.

1. Misfolded protein loses function> downstream effects cause symptoms.
2. Misfolded protein gains new function, forms aggregates. Leads to toxicity and loss of function

82

2,3- BPG what does it do?

binds to B subunit of Hb to help unload it.

83

Pyruvate Dehydrogenase

PDH- takes Pyruvate (3C) to acetyl CoA(2C) by redox
also produced: NADH and CO2

AcetylCoA inhibits Pyruvate Dehydrogenase

Needs TLCFN

84

TLCFN
Who needs these

Thiamine Phosphate
Lipoic acid
Coenzyme A
FADH2
NADH

PDH, and a ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

85

What inhibits PDH?

AcetylCoA

86

What inhibits the glycolysis enzymes?

Hexokinase- G6P
PFK-I- ATP and citrate
pyruvate kinase- inhibited by ATP

87

What enzymes do I need to know from TCA?

Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
a- ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

88

isocitrate dehydrogenase

isocitrate > a ketoglutarate
makes NADH + CO2

Inhibited by ATP and NADH
Very important because it is regulated by ATP, NADH

89

a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

a-ketoglutarate > succinyl coA
makes CO2 + NADH

Needs TLCFN

90

Galactose metabolism

lactase. Lactose > galactose
Lactase found in brush border of intestine
Galactokinase
Galactose > galactose-1-P
Gal-1P uridyltransferase
Galactose-1-P + UDP-Glucose > Glucose1P

91

Fructose metabolism

Fructose from Sucrose disacc. (table sugar, honey...)

Fructokinase= Fructose> fuctose 1P, use ATP
Brush border enzyme

Aldolase B= Fructose1P > Glyceraldehyde + DHAP
then on to glycolysis...

92

Alcohol metabolism

alcohol dehydrogenase:(cytoplasm)
alcohol > acetalaldehyde

aldehyde dehydrogenase(mitochondria)d
acetaldehyde > acetic acid

Both enzymes produce NADH

Acetaldehyde build up: nausea, vommiting, flushing, hypotension, headache (hangover smptoms)

Chronic alchohol consumption accummulates NADH, effecting major pathways. and major cause for alcohol related problems

93

Three ways Glucose 6P can go?

Glycogenesis
Pyruvate
Pentose phosphate pathway (HMP shunt)

94

Where is glycogen stored?

liver
muscle
kidney

95

Glycogenesis

Glc > glucose6P > glc1P > UDP Glu > glycogen

enzymes glucose 1P uridyl transferase
glucose 6P>UDP glucose

Gycogen synthase
UDP Glucose > glycogen
forms a 1,4 linkage
Activated by insulin

Glycogen branching
Adds a1,6 linkage to branch

Branched version more water soluble , more accessible ends

96

Glycogen Breakdown

Glycogen > G1P > G6P > Glucose (liver) or Pyruvate (muscle)


Glycogen phosphorylase-- breaks a1,4 bonds
glycogen debranching Enzyme: breaks a1,6
Phosphofructomutase: g1P > g6P
Glucose6phosphotase- (liver, turn g6P to glucose)

97

Roel of Transcription factors

TFIID- recognized TATA box, with TATA binding protein
TFIIB-
TFIIF- (stabilizes) polymerase
TFIIE-
TFIIH- Unwinds DNA

98

What activates/promotes glycogen phosphorylase and deb ranching?

Epinepherine
Glucagon (acts in liver and adipose)
AMP muscle (low ATP)

99

Where does the Carbon come from to form glucose during gluconeogenesis?

1. Pyruvate or Lactate
2. Alanin (amino acid)
3. Glycerol (TG breakdown)

100

Where does pyruvate go in order to start gluconeogenesis?

Mitochondria

101

Gluconeogenesis pathway

Pyruvate > oxoloacetate > PEP

Pyruvate carboxylase (mitochondria)- Pyruvate to OAA
Activated by AcetylCoA
PEP carboxykinase (cytoplasm)- OAA to PEP
Activated by glucagon and cortisol
Fructose6-bisphosphatase (cytoplasm)- F1,6bisp > F6P
activated by ATP, inhibited by F2,6bisP

102

What does Pyruvate carboxylase need?

ABC carboxylase

ATP (beta oxidation usually provides this)
Biotin
CO2

103

Cori Cycle

Muscle: Glucose > Pyruvate > lactate
lactate moves to liver
Liver: lactate > AcetylCoA > pyruvate > glucose

G6P needs NADH from the reaction that makes acetylCoA

104

Glucose Alanine cycle

Muscle: Glucose > pyruvate > alanine

Liver: Alanine > pyruvate > Glucose

105

What is Hexose Monophosphate Shunts job?

Ribose sugar for nucleotides (Ribose-5-P)
NADPH (reducing molecule)

106

What are the enzymes in HMP shunt?

Glucose6P dehydrogenase

G6P > NADPH + 6 phosphoglucanate

Transketolase (TPP)
ribose 5P > glyceraldehyde 3P

107

Gluthion reductase

In erythrocytes

gives electrons to make water from superoxide?

needs electrons from NADPH to keep working

108

Why do heinz bodies form?

H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) accumulates and denatures hb = heinz bodies.

109

How does G6PD deficiency relate to hemolytic anemia?

NADPH not there to donate electrons to make water from superoxides.
hydrogen peroxide builds up and denatures membrane

110

Episodic G6PD deficiency

only 50% of the enzyme G6PD is active. When body is stressed it will have episodic hemolytic anemia.

111

Primitive streak

Start of gastrulation
Epiblasts migrate through groove to differentiate into three germ tissues

112

Primitive (Hensen's) node

form at cranial end of primitive streak

Organizer- helps form longitudinal axis.

Forms the tissues that form notochord, epiblasts pass through the node.

113

Gastrulation

to form three germ layers

1. endoderm(deep)- epiblasts pass through spreak and displace hypoblasts
2. mesoderm(middle)- epiblasts invaginate.
3. ectoderm(superficial)- remaining epiblast cells

114

Notochord development

Primitive node gives rise to prechordal mesoderm

Invaginates node and gives rise to prechordal plate mesoderm

Some prechordal mesoderm mix with hypoblast to form a solid notochord

notochord is inducing structure for axial skeleton

Notochord will be next to ECTOderm, and induces thickening of ectoderm to form the neural plate, or neuroectoderm

115

Neuralation

The neuroectoderm give rise to the central and peripheral nervous system and neural crest cells.

116

What does the neural chord persist as in an adult?

Nucleus pulpous of the intervertebral disc.

117

Embryonic folding

Lateral fold: (day 21 start)


Cephalocaudal fold: (day 17is)

118

Ectoderm derivatives

Surface ectoderm:
epidermis, hair, nails
Glands: sweat, sebaceous and lactiferous
Sensory epithelium of ears, nose, tongue, lens of eye, membranous labyrinth ear

Neuroectoderm:
Neural tube (neurulation)
Neural crest; PNS, retina

119

Mesoderm derivatives


Paraaxial:
Somites; bone (vert column); ribs; skeletal muscle;
dermis; tendons and ligaments; cartilage

Intermediate:
Urinary and reproductive tissue

Lateral plate:
Connective tissue, muscle, body wall, some viscera

*Mesoderm: vertebral column formation and all of our bones

120

Endodermal Derivatives

Lining of GI tract
Inner epithelium of the respiratory tract, bladder, urethra

121

Fetal period

Week 9-12: Growth of head begins to slow, site of blood formation shifts from liver to spleen, week 12: external genitalia can be distinguished,

Weeks 13-16: rapid growth, hair on scalp, eye and eye movements

Week 17-20: limbs reach proportion and there are movements, skin covered in wax(protection), lanugo (hair covering), testes begin to descend, brown fat formed.

Week 21-25: weight gain, SURFACTANT beginning to be secreted, blink startle reflex, and fingernails form. EARLIEST FOR SURVIVAL

Week 26-29: Lungs capable of breathing, CNS can control breathing/temp, white fat formed, toenails develop, Week 28 blood production moves to bone marrow

Week 30-35: pupillary light reflex, fat accumulating 8% of weight is fat

Week 36-38: 16% body weight is fat, head large but closer to proportion, testes reached scrotum.

122

Maternal Serum Screening Test

Part of Assessing Fetal Status

AFP is secreted by fetal liver, leaks into blood stream. Mom blood samples taken to look at this level and combine it with other 2nd trimester markers (ex. hCG levels) to asses possible abnormalities.

AFP = Alphafetoprotein

123

Amniocentesis

Part of Assessing Fetal Status

Aspirate amniotic fluid to karyotype it, PCR and genotyping can be done to assess genetic abnormalities.

Performed after week 14 to prevent fetal harm, fetal loss risk 1/300-500.

124

Chorionic villus Sampling

Part of Assessing Fetal Status

Sample chorion frondosum (derived from embryo), fetal DNA can be harvested without harm to fetus

Slightly higher risk then amniocentesis

Guided by ultrasound.

125

What tells the primary oocyte to go through meiosis 1?

LH. Until this point primary oocyte is suspended in prophase 1.

126

Prefertilization events

Sperm:
Capacitation, enzymes in uterine secretions remove glycoprotein coat
Find each other: Sperm tail, uterine tube cillia and signal released from oocyte and surrounding corona help sperm find egg. .

127

Fertilization events

1. Penetrate corona radiata
2. acrosome reaction (acrosome fuse with zone pep. make tunnel)
3. Penetrate Zona Pellucida
4. Fusion of oocyte and sperm cell membranes
5. Sperm enters cytoplasm, ZONA REACTION (no more sperm in cells)
6. Resumption of meiosis 2
7. Female pronucleus
8. metabolic activation of egg
9. male pronucleus
10. Nuclei merge
11. Cleavage begins.

128

Morula

16 cell (blastomere cells) inside zone pellucida

Zona pellucida stays same size while cells get smaller on division

129

Blastocyst

Day 4. Fluid filled space forms between morula cells

Trophoblasts- cells that form outer ring of blastocyst
Embryoblasts- small mass of cells, will form embryo eventually

Before implantation Zona Pell degenerates so blastocyte can implant on wall

130

What are events in first week of fertilization?

1. prefertilization
2. fertilization
3. zygote
4. Morula formation
5. Blastocyte formation
6. implantation (around day 6)

131

Trophoblast differentiation Day 8-9

Trophoblasts differentiate into:
Cytotrophoblasts: mono nucleated cells that divide, migrate into syncytiotrophoblasts, lose cell membrane
Sencytiotrophoblasts:multinucleated cells. PRODUCE hCG and eyes and enzymes that break down extra cell matrix between endometrial cells. (so embryo can go deeper).

132

Embryoblast differentiation Day 10-12

Embryoblast differentiaties to epiblast and hypoblast
form bilaminar disc

Hypoblast migrate to cytotrophoblast cells and form primitive yolk sac.

Amniotic cavity, above epiblasts

133

Trophoblastic Lacunae

Day 8-9
Holes that form in syncytium at the same time blood vessels are getting closer and closer.


Day10-12
syncytiotrophoblasts will dissolve endothelium of vessels, blood will fill trophoblastic lacunae

134

What forms the connecting stalk?

Formed by extra embryonic mesoderm

Eventually forms umbilical cord.

135

Hormonal contraceptives

estrogen and/or progestin prevent release of FSH/LH from pituitary, preventing ovulation.

Contraceptive pills- inhibit follicular development
Medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera): Decreae GnRH
from hypothalums= no FSH/LH release
IUD's- kill sperm, create fatal environment
Levonorgestrel (Plan B)- inhibit ovulation, make sperm not go
to uterus

136

Male infertility

Low sperm count: <15 mil/mL (normal: 15-300 mill/mL)

Poor sperm motility (<40%)

137

Female infertility

Occluded uterine tubes
Scarred ovaries
Hormonal imbalance
Anovulation
Lack or loss of implantation

138

Abnormal implantation

Ectopic implantation, Pouch of Douglas, tube, intestine

Decidulization (corpus luteum secreting progesterone to build up wall) will happen as long as syncytiotrophoblasts secrete hCG.

139

Function of placenta

exchange metabolic and gas products

produce hormones.

140

Nomenclature of placental development Mom v Baby

Babies= chorion
Mom= decidua

141

villi in embryology

fingerlike projections that extend towards blood supply

142

Chorion frondosum

fetal part of placenta

143

Decidua basalis

Mother part of placenta

144

Placental invasions

Decidua= normal
accreta= through stratum baseless
increta= into myometrium
percreta= all the way through

alphabetical for increasing severity

145

Placental circulation (vein v artery) ??

maybe google this, youtube?

146

Yolk sac

Primordial germ cells migrate from here.

Blood cell devo. from weeks 3-6.

Provide nutrients during establishment of uteroplacental circulation.

147

allantois

Site of blood cell devo. weeks 3-6.

Postnatally forms a fibrous cord called the urachus.

Urachus becomes median umbilical ligament in the adult.