Flashcards in Measuring Biodivrrsity Deck (34)
What are the four ways of measuring biodiversity
Species richness/diversity (alpha diversity)
Species composition (beta diversity)
Briefly what is species composition
The species present in different areas and comparing their distribution - opposite to jaccard similarity index
Briefly what is phylogenetic diversity
Variability in genetic viability
Briefly what is functional diversity
What is the function of different organisms within the ecosystem
What is endemism
Restricted to a particular area e.g Scottish crossbill
What is phylogenetic diversity based on
The phylogenetic distance between species. Higher diversity when species present in the community are less genetically related
Why are biodiversity measurements important
Provides tools for selecting areas to prioritise for conservation. We have limited resources and time. Have to feed populations so use resources wisely.
Why is it tricky to decide the placesro conserve
Due to the multitude of ways of measuring biodiversity
What are biodiversity hotspots
Refers to a geographical area that ranks particularly high species richness. Also based on levels of endemism, number of rare or threatened species.
What did Marshall (2016) find
High bioquality implies a high proportion of globally rare plants in an area - species that stand to be lost from the global pool. Shows the most significant areas for global plants but also reveals variations within the areas at a local scale
What are the 3 aspects that make it hard to figure which areas to conserve
Endemic species richness
Threaten species richness
What did Orme (2005) figure out
Only 2.5% of biodiversity hotspots for birds overlap and we can’t just rely on that one area to conserve
What is there a lack of congruence between
Species and phylogenetic diversity of terrestrial birds and mammals
What are similarity indices (Jaccard) important
To help define complementarity areas
What is the complementarity approach
Conserving as much biodiversity as possible in a limited area of land available for consecration
What is the evenness concept
We should conserve areas which have equal diversity
What is functional diversity
The elements of biodiversity (species traits) that influence how ecosystems function
What is ecosystem function
In an ecological context, function is generally considered a synonym for process
What is species diversity-ecosystem function
Ecosystem functions are positively related to species richness
What are the three things Thompson (2015) looked into
Effects of zooplankton diversity on chlorophyll a in the 23 ponds.
What is included with the term ecosystem function
Stocks of materials e.g carbon, water and minerals and rates of processes involving fluxes of energy and matter between trophies levels and the environment
What are ecosystem services
Benefits provided by ecosystems that contribute to making human life both possible and worth living e.g pollination of fruit.
Usually encompasses the tangible and intangible benefits that humans obtain from ecosystems ‘goods’ and ‘services’
What 3 things make up ecosystem services
Environment and climate change
Parts of biodveity
Parts of ecosystem functioning
Parts of abiotic environment
Using the amazon what should we think about when trying to consvere it
Where the forests are and where they’re disappearing.
Where the forests guardians live.
Biggest biodiversity strongholds.
Places that supply fresh water for people.
Forests that store the most carbon.
Areas most vulnerable to climate change impacts.
Amazonias essential natural capital (ecosystem services)
What needs to be considered
Complex landscapes and species
Unfortunately what are the criterion for selecting habitats for conservation still based on
Degree of representativeness.
Degree of conversation of the habitat structure and function and restoration possibility.
European Commision Habitats Directive.