Flashcards in Medical conditions Deck (40)
Ahe persistent inflammation of the lungs characterized by recurrent episodes of shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, chest tightness or pressure, coughing (especially at night), and wheezing
What is the best position of a patient experiencing asthma attack?
Orthopneic position to facilitate breathing and lung expansion
A severe, prolonged form of asthma that is difficult to treat
What causes hypoxemia during asthma?
limited expiratory airflow traps air distal to spastic, narrowed airways
Hyperventilation results to what type of acid-base imbalance?
Explain the pathophysiology of asthma.
Inflammatory mediators released from sensitized airways --> causing activation of inflammatory cells --> bronchoconstriction, airway edema, impaired mucociliary clearance --> airway narrowing limits airflow, increases work of breathing --> trapped air mixes with inhaled air, impairing gas exchange
What causes asthma?
Common allergens, exposure to aspirin and other nonsteroidal drugs, exercise, cold or hot air, viral infections, stress
List the risk factors of asthma.
Exposure to infections
Prevention strategies to follow when dealing with asthma
Avoid allergies and environmental triggers
Modify home environment
Remove pets from household
Eliminate all tobacco smoke
Early treatment of respiratory infections
Comply with medication regimens
What is the goal of pharmacologic therapy in asthma?
Prevent and control symptoms, reduce frequency and severity of exacerbations, reverse airway obstruction
What is the effect of bronchodilators?
Relax smooth muscles of airway
block the late response to inhaled allergens and reduce edema and bronchial hyperresponsiveness
Children younger than 4 will be needing a _______ for medication administration.
spacer with mask
Air trapping means ______
decreased airflow with exhalation
increase the anteroposterior chest diameter
inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchial tubes
a disorder of excessive bronchial mucus secretion
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
a specific progressive disorder that slowly alters the structures of the respiratory system over time, irreversibly affecting lung function
characterized by destruction of the walls of the alveoli, with resulting enlargement of abnormal air spaces
Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)
the amount of air that can be exhaled in 1 second as measured by a spirometer
the drainage by gravity of secretions from various lung segments
What is pursed-lip breathing?
exhaling through a narrow opening between the lips to prolong the expiratory phase in an effort to promote more alveolar emptying while maintaining open alveoli
A characteristic position of patients with COPD.
a series of vigorous quiverings produced by hands that are placed flat against the patient’s chest wall
What is a major factor in the development of chronic bronchitis?
What is the prevention of COPD?
Don’t smoke, or quit smoking
Decrease exposure to secondhand smoke, occupational respiratory irritants, air pollutants
What are the manifestations of chronic bronchitis?
cough that produces copious amounts of thick tenacious sputum, cyanosis, evidence of right-sided heart failure, adventitious lung sounds prominent on auscultation
What are the manifestations of emphysema insidious?
dyspnea with exertion, minimal cough, barrel chest due to air trapping and hyperinflation, breath sounds diminished, pursed-lip breathing
Airway clearance techniques
therapies used to assist in loosening and removing mucus form the lungs; coughing is the most basic, huffing, CPT