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Flashcards in Medical conditions Deck (40)
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1

Ahe persistent inflammation of the lungs characterized by recurrent episodes of shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, chest tightness or pressure, coughing (especially at night), and wheezing

Asthma

2

What is the best position of a patient experiencing asthma attack?

Orthopneic position to facilitate breathing and lung expansion

3

A severe, prolonged form of asthma that is difficult to treat

Status asthmaticus

4

What causes hypoxemia during asthma?

limited expiratory airflow traps air distal to spastic, narrowed airways

5

Hyperventilation results to what type of acid-base imbalance?

respiratory alkalosis

6

Explain the pathophysiology of asthma.

Inflammatory mediators released from sensitized airways --> causing activation of inflammatory cells --> bronchoconstriction, airway edema, impaired mucociliary clearance --> airway narrowing limits airflow, increases work of breathing --> trapped air mixes with inhaled air, impairing gas exchange

7

What causes asthma?

Common allergens, exposure to aspirin and other nonsteroidal drugs, exercise, cold or hot air, viral infections, stress

8

List the risk factors of asthma.

Genetic factors
Exposure to infections
Air pollution
Allergies

9

Prevention strategies to follow when dealing with asthma

Avoid allergies and environmental triggers
Modify home environment
Remove pets from household
Eliminate all tobacco smoke
Early treatment of respiratory infections
Comply with medication regimens

10

What is the goal of pharmacologic therapy in asthma?

Prevent and control symptoms, reduce frequency and severity of exacerbations, reverse airway obstruction

11

What is the effect of bronchodilators?

Relax smooth muscles of airway

12

block the late response to inhaled allergens and reduce edema and bronchial hyperresponsiveness

Corticosteroids

13

Children younger than 4 will be needing a _______ for medication administration.

spacer with mask

14

Air trapping means ______

decreased airflow with exhalation

15

increase the anteroposterior chest diameter

barrel chest

16

inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchial tubes

Bronchitis

17

a disorder of excessive bronchial mucus secretion

Chronic bronchitis

18

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

a specific progressive disorder that slowly alters the structures of the respiratory system over time, irreversibly affecting lung function

19

Emphysema

characterized by destruction of the walls of the alveoli, with resulting enlargement of abnormal air spaces

20

Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)

the amount of air that can be exhaled in 1 second as measured by a spirometer

21

Postural drainage

the drainage by gravity of secretions from various lung segments

22

What is pursed-lip breathing?

exhaling through a narrow opening between the lips to prolong the expiratory phase in an effort to promote more alveolar emptying while maintaining open alveoli

23

A characteristic position of patients with COPD.

Tripod position

24

a series of vigorous quiverings produced by hands that are placed flat against the patient’s chest wall

vibration

25

What is a major factor in the development of chronic bronchitis?

smoking

26

What is the prevention of COPD?

Don’t smoke, or quit smoking
Decrease exposure to secondhand smoke, occupational respiratory irritants, air pollutants

27

What are the manifestations of chronic bronchitis?

cough that produces copious amounts of thick tenacious sputum, cyanosis, evidence of right-sided heart failure, adventitious lung sounds prominent on auscultation

28

What are the manifestations of emphysema insidious?

dyspnea with exertion, minimal cough, barrel chest due to air trapping and hyperinflation, breath sounds diminished, pursed-lip breathing

29

Airway clearance techniques

therapies used to assist in loosening and removing mucus form the lungs; coughing is the most basic, huffing, CPT

30

Amniocentesis

genetic testing used to determine if the fetus has CF; typically occurs between weeks 15–18 of the pregnancy