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Flashcards in Medical Physiology mid-term Deck (113)
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1

atom

smallest building block of matter- cannot be broken down into simpler substances; made of proton, neutrons, electron.

2

Name bonds by decreasing strength

Covalent bond; ionic bonds; hydrogen bonds; van der waals interactions

3

Example of polar molecule

water; all ions and partially charged molecule; amino acids

4

Example of non-polar molecule

O₂, CO₂, H₂, N₂, Hydrocarbons, cholesterol, triglycerides

5

________ has a polar component and non-polar component

Amphipathic

6

_________ likes water; is polar or ion

Hydrophilic

7

_________ dislikes water; is non-polar

Hydrophobic

8

Lipophilic

likes lipid; is non-polar

9

Lipophobic

does not like lipids; is polar

10

________ large molecules made up of amino acid molecules attached by ___________

Proteins; peptide bonds (specific type of covalent bond)

11

Change of shape of the protein

conformational change

12

________ protein molecule with attached long, branching chains of carbohydrate.

Glycoprotein

13

Most membrane proteins are ________

Glycoprotein

14

Lipid bilayer membrane

made of phospholipids, cholesterol, membrane proteins; impermeable to polar but permeable to nonpolar ( and somewhat permeable to water); Cholesterol increases membrane viscosity by hydrogen bonding with phospholipids.

15

_______ inside and spanning the bilayer, protein has _______ ________midsection and ________ ends.

Intergral membrane protein; hydrophobic alpha-helical: hydrophilic

16

Examples of Intergral Membrane Proteins

Channel; receptors, pumps ( Na⁺/ K⁺ ATPase pump), recognition molecules, enzymes, and sensory transducers

17

_______ attached to intergral proteins on inside of membrane

Peripheral membrane protein

18

Example of Peripheral membrane proteins

Enzymes or other controllers of intracellular function.

19

Osmotic pressure

amount of pressure required to exactly oppose force of osmosis

20

Movement of molecules across a cell membrane through simple diffusion:

no binding to carrier proteins, but can be selective; non-polar & small molecules through membrane ( CO₂, O₂, lipids, alcohol); Polar molecules through channels ( selective by size and charge) including water; Channels can be gated; Voltage gated.

21

Chemical Gating

gate open/ closes when receptor binds with transmitter molecule.

22

Voltage Gating

gate open/ closes when electrical charge across membrane changes

23

Movement of molecules across a cell membrane through facilitated diffusion

involves binding to carrier protein but no ATP used; polar or large molecules goes down concentration gradient; examples glucose and amino acids

24

Movement of molecules across a cell membrane through active transport

ATP used to pump molecules against concentration gradient; Primary active transport; secondary active transport.

25

Primary active transport

uses ATP to pump against concentration gradient; Na⁺/K⁺ ATPase pumps in all cells of body; Ca²⁺ ATPase; H⁺ ATPase

26

Secondary active transport

concentration gradient of primary active transport used to pump ions against concentration gradient; no ATP used; Co-transport ( Glucose and amino acids into cells with Na⁺); Counter-transport (Ca²⁺ or H⁺ out of cell with Na⁺ in opposite direction)

27

1 Mole =

6.023 * 10²³ molecules

28

Carbohydrates are dietary components that break-up into simple sugars, such as

glucose, fructose, and galactose

29

Carbos in diet are:

sucrose (sugar), lactose (in milk), starches in fruits/vegtables and especially in grains, bread, rice, pasta, potatoes

30

Carbohydrates are

long chains of glucose and glucose-like molecules