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Flashcards in Medical Terminology Deck (210):
1

sclerosis

Abnormal hardening of body tissue.

2

cardiogenic shock

A condition in which your heart suddenly can't pump enough blood to meet your body's needs.

3

congestive heart failure

Inability of the heart to keep up with the demands on it, with failure of the heart to pump blood with normal efficiency.

4

cephalgia

Headache.

5

ilium

Part of the hip bone.

6

ileum

Part of the small intestine.

7

urethra

The tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.

8

ureter

One of two tubes each leading from a single kidney and inserting into the urinary bladder.

9

sequela

(pl. sequelae)

A condition that is the consequence of a previous disease or injury.

10

aphasia

The loss of ability to understand or express speech, caused by brain damage.

11

aphagia

The inability or refusal to swallow.

12

hematochezia

The passage of blood in the feces.

13

melena

The passage of black, tarry stools.

14

diaphoresis

Sweating, especially to an unusual degree.

15

hematemesis

Vomiting of blood.

16

dosing weight

The body weight used for calculating the appropriate dosage of a medication for those whose weight exceeds the usual average range.

17

mean arterial pressure

(MAP)

The average pressure in a patient's arteries during one cardiac cycle.

18

peripheral intravenous line

(PIV)

A small, short, plastic tube called a catheter that is put through the skin into a vein in the scalp, hand, arm, or foot.

19

Glasgow Coma Scale

(GCS)

A neurological scale which aims to give a reliable and objective way of recording the conscious state of a person for initial as well as subsequent assessment.

20

debridement

The process of removing nonliving tissue from pressure ulcers, burns, and other wounds.

21

rongeur

A forcepslike instrument for cutting tough tissue, particularly bone.

22

arthrotomy

Cutting into a joint to expose its interior.

23

tibial tubercle

(tuberosity of the tibia)

A large oblong elevation at the proximal end of the tibia to which the ligament of the patella attaches.

24

paratenon

The tissue, fatty or synovial, between a tendon and its sheath.

25

ecchymosis

The passage of blood from ruptured blood vessels into subcutaneous tissue, marked by a purple discoloration of the skin; larger than a petechia.

26

petechia

(pl. petechiae)

A small purplish spot on a body surface, such as the skin or a mucous membrane, caused by a minute hemorrhage.

27

glossectomy

Excision of all or a portion of the tongue.

28

hyperbaric oxygen therapy

Treatment in which oxygen is provided in a sealed chamber at an ambient pressure greater than 1 atmosphere.

29

alveoloplasty

Surgical preparation of the alveolar ridges for the reception of dentures; shaping and smoothing of socket margins after extraction of teeth with subsequent suturing to ensure optimal healing.

30

intercostal

Located or occurring between the ribs.

31

saline lock

An intravenous portal, usually placed and left in a vein in one of the patient's arms, and used episodically for fluid or medication infusions. Salt water flushes are used to maintain its patency.

32

patchy atelectasis

Decreased aeration and collapse of multiple small areas of the lung.

33

atelectasis

A collapse of lung tissue affecting part or all of one lung. This condition prevents normal oxygen absorption to healthy tissues.

34

hypercapnia

An abnormally high concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood.

35

status asthmaticus

A particularly severe episode of asthma that does not respond adequately to ordinary therapeutic measures and usually requires hospitalization.

36

aneurysm

An abnormal, blood-filled sac formed by dilation of the wall of a blood vessel or heart ventricle.

37

etiology

The cause or origin of a disease or disorder as determined by medical diagnosis.

38

decompensation

1. The inability of a bodily organ or system, especially the circulatory system, to maintain adequate physiological function in the presence of disease.

2. The inability to maintain defense mechanisms in response to stress, resulting in personality disturbance or psychological imbalance.

39

nontender

Relatively insensitive to pressure by palpation.

40

hepatosplenomegaly

Enlargement of the liver and the spleen.

41

cervical collar

(C-collar)

Splinting device used to stabilize the neck.

42

naris

(pl. nares)

Anterior opening to either side of the nasal cavity; nostril.

43

sclera

(pl. sclerae)

The tough white fibrous outer envelope of tissue covering all of the eyeball except the cornea.

44

icterus

(jaundice)

A yellowish staining of the integument, sclerae, deeper tissues, and excretions with bile pigments, due to increased plasma bile levels.

45

conjunctiva

(pl. conjunctivae)

The mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelid and the exposed surface of the eyeball.

46

oral commissure

The area where the upper and lower lips meet at the corner of the mouth.

47

nondisplaced fracture

Where a bone brakes in one spot only and stays aligned.

48

palpable

Perceptible by touch.

49

nasal flaring

Intermittent outward movement of the nostrils with each inspiratory effort; indicates an increase in the work of breathing.

50

asthma

A chronic inflammatory disease of the lungs characterized by a narrowing of the airways and attacks of wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath that are induced by triggers such as allergens, exercise, infections, and stress.

51

chronic

Lasting for a long period of time or marked by frequent recurrence, as certain diseases.

52

eczema

A noncontagious inflammation of the skin, characterized chiefly by redness, itching, and the outbreak of lesions that may discharge serous matter and become encrusted and scaly.

53

serous

Relating to, containing, or producing serum or a substance having a watery consistency.

54

cannula

A flexible tube, usually containing a trocar at one end, that is inserted into a bodily cavity, duct, or vessel to drain fluid or administer a substance such as a medication.

55

trocar

A sharp-pointed surgical instrument, used with a cannula to puncture a body cavity for fluid aspiration.

56

bolus

1. The dose of a drug injected as rapidly a possible into a vein so as to be diluted as little as possible.

2. A chewed-up quantity of food in a state ready to be swallowed.

57

tachypnea

Rapid breathing.

58

retractions

When the area between the ribs and in the neck sinks in when a person with asthma attempts to inhale. Retractions are a sign someone is working hard to breathe. If a person is having trouble breathing, extra muscles kick into action. These muscles cause retractions, which can be seen as the person tries to inhale.

59

hypoxemia

Insufficient oxygenation of the blood.

60

rhinorrhea

Discharge from the nasal mucous membrane, especially when excessive, as with an allergy or infection.

61

anastomosis

The surgical connection of separate or severed tubular hollow organs to form a continuous channel, as between two parts of the intestine.

62

volvulus

An obstruction due to twisting or knotting of the gastrointestinal tract.

63

vulvodynia

Chronic, unexplained pain in the area around the opening of the vagina.

64

Veress needle

A spring-loaded needle used to create pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery.

65

thrombus

A blood clot in a vessel or in one of the chambers of the heart that remains at the point of its formation.

66

thoracotomy

Surgical incision of the chest wall.

67

pleura

(pl. pleurae)

The serous membrane enveloping the lungs and lining the walls of the pleural cavity.

68

effusion

The seeping of serous, purulent, or bloody fluid into a body cavity or tissue.

69

pneumothorax

The presence of free air or gas in the pleural cavity.

70

mediastinum

The mass of tissues and organs separating the sternum in front and the vertebral column behind, containing the heart and its large vessels, trachea, esophagus, thymus, lymph nodes, and other structures and tissues.

71

excursion

A range of movement regularly repeated in performance of a function, e.g., excursion of the jaws in mastication.

72

coarctation of the aorta

A congenital narrowing of a short section of the main artery of the body, the aorta, usually just beyond the point at which the arteries to the head and arms are given off. The pulses in the arms are much stronger than those in the legs.

73

organomegaly

Abnormal enlargement of an organ, particularly an organ of the abdominal cavity.

74

flaccid

Relaxed, flabby, or without muscle tone.

75

systolic dysfunction

A loss of cardiac muscle with volume overload and decreased contractility.

76

ejection fraction

The fraction of the total ventricular filling volume that is ejected during each ventricular contraction. The normal EF of the left ventricle is 65%.

77

systemic hypertension

Hypertension in the systemic arteries - the vessels that carry blood from the heart to the body's tissues (other than the lungs). High systemic (or body) blood pressure is usually caused by the constriction of the small arteries (arterioles).

78

extubate

To remove a tube, usually an endotracheal anesthesia tube or a Levin gastric suction tube.

79

arteriovenous malformation

An abnormal tangle of arteries and veins in which the arteries feed directly into the veins without a normal intervening capillary bed.

80

abscess

A localized collection of pus in part of the body formed by tissue disintegration and surrounded by an inflamed area.

81

purulent

Containing, discharging, or causing the production of pus.

82

hidradenitis suppurativa

A severe, chronic, recurrent pus-producing infection of the apocrine sweat glands.

83

ageusia

Absence or impairment of the sense of taste.

84

hematemesis

The vomiting of blood.

85

hemoptysis

The expectoration of blood or of blood-streaked sputum from the larynx, trachea, bronchi, or lungs.

86

palpitations

A sensation in which a person is aware of an irregular, hard, or rapid heartbeat.

87

emesis

Vomiting.

88

sinus rhythm

A normal cardiac rhythm proceeding from the sinoatrial node.

89

edema

An excessive accumulation of serous fluid in tissue spaces or a body cavity.

90

anemia

A pathological deficiency in the oxygen-carrying component of the blood, measured in unit volume concentrations of hemoglobin, red blood cell volume, or red blood cell number.

91

polyuria

Excessive passage of urine.

92

polydipsia

Chronic excessive thirst and fluid intake.

93

acute

Having a rapid onset and following a short but severe course.

94

dysuria

Painful or difficult urination.

95

hirsutism

Abnormal hairiness, especially in women.

96

urticaria

(hives)

A rash characterized by intensely itching welts, triggered by the release of histamine and caused by an allergic response to any of multiple agents or conditions, including food, drugs, and infections.

97

alopecia

Complete or partial loss of hair from the head or other parts of the body.

98

halitosis

Bad breath.

99

perineal

Pertaining to the perineum.

100

peritoneal

Pertaining to the peritoneum.

101

perineum

Surface area between the thighs extending from the coccyx to the pubix that includes the anus posteriorly and the external genitalia anteriorly.

102

peritoneum

Serous sac consisting of mesothelium and a thin external layer of irregular connective tissue that lines the abdominopelvic cavity and covers most of the viscera contained therein. It forms 2 sacs: the peritoneal (or greater) sac and the omental bursa (lesser sac) connected by the omental foramen.

103

peroneal

Pertaining to the outer or fibular side of the leg.

104

indolent

1. Causing little pain.
2. Slow growing.

105

scrotoplasty

Reparative or plastic surgery of the scrotum.

106

meatoplasty

Reparative or reconstructive surgery of a meatus or canal.

107

hypospadias

A developmental anomaly in which the urethra opens inferior to its normal location; usually seen in males, with the opening on the underside of the penis or on the perineum.

108

ketosis

The accumulation of excessive amounts of ketone bodies in body tissues and fluids, occurring when fatty acids are incompletely metabolized.

109

ketogenic diet

A ketosis-causing diet that is high in fats and proteins and low in carbohydrates, primarily used in the treatment of epilepsy.

110

hypotonia

A condition of diminished tone or tension that may involve any body structure.

111

contracture

An abnormal, often permanent shortening, as of muscle or scar tissue, that results in distortion or deformity, especially of a joint of the body.

112

omentum

(pl. omenta, omentums)

One of the folds of the peritoneum that connects the stomach with other abdominal organs.

113

exudate

Any fluid exuded out from a tissue or its capillaries as the result of injury, inflammation or infection.

114

prolapse

The falling down or slipping out of place of an organ or part, such as the uterus.

115

orthopnea

Discomfort in breathing that is brought on or aggravated by lying flat.

116

radiculopathy

Disease of the nerve roots.

117

anetic

Soothing.

118

strepitus

A sound or noise, as that heard on auscultation.

119

heterotaxia

Abnormal arrangement of organs or parts of the body in relation to each other.

120

glomus

(pl. glomera)

A small histologically recognizable body composed primarily of fine arterioles connecting directly with veins, and having a rich nerve supply.

121

lymphostasis

Obstruction of the normal flow of lymph.

122

cicatrix

(pl. cicatrices)

A scar left by the formation of new connective tissue over a healing sore or wound.

123

arcuation

A bending or curvature.

124

neutropenia

An abnormally low level of neutrophils in the circulating blood.

125

myelosuppressive

Inhibiting bone marrow activity, resulting in decreased production of blood cells and platelets.

126

myelotoxic

1. Destructive to bone marrow.

2. Myelosuppressive.

3. Arising from diseased bone marrow.

127

rugose

Having a rough, ridged, or wrinkled surface.

128

loculus

(pl. loculi)

A small space or cavity.

129

epiploic

Relating to the omentum.

130

fat pad

A layer of adipose tissue (usually capsulated) that protects structures from direct impact. Fat pads are found in various locations in the body: beneath the patellar tendon; under the calcaneus; or behind the elbow.

131

retract

To shrink, draw back, or pull apart.

132

subcutaneous tissue

The layer of tissue between the dermis and muscle, consisting of adipose and connective tissues, blood vessels, and nerves.

133

umbilicus

(pl. umbilici)

Navel; the pit in the center of the abdominal wall marking the point where the umbilical cord entered the fetus.

134

tortuosity

1. The quality or condition of being tortuous; twistedness or crookedness.

2. A bent or twisted part, passage, or thing.

135

lithotomy

Surgical removal of a stone or stones from the urinary tract.

136

lithotomy position

A supine position of the body with the legs separated, flexed, and supported in raised stirrups, originally used for lithotomy and later also for childbirth.

137

retroperitoneum

The retroperitoneal space; the space between the peritoneum and the posterior abdominal wall.

138

esophagogastroduodenoscopy

Endoscopic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.

139

end colostomy

The end of the colon is brought through the abdominal wall, where it may be turned under, like a cuff. The edges of the colon are then stitched to the skin of the abdominal wall to form an opening called astoma. Stool drains from the stoma into a bag or pouch attached to the abdomen.

140

proctosigmoidectomy

Surgical excision of the rectum and the sigmoid colon.

141

Hartmann's procedure

Resection of the rectosigmoid colon, with closure of the rectal stump and colostomy.

142

sigmoid colectomy

An operation to remove part of the left side of the colon known as the sigmoid colon.

143

adhesiolysis

The surgical lysis of adhesions, usually by laparoscopy.

144

sigmoid colon

An S-shaped section of the colon between the descending section and the rectum. Also called sigmoid flexure.

145

mesoappendix

The short mesentery of the appendix lying behind the terminal ileum, in which the appendicular artery courses.

146

cecum

(pl. ceca)

The large pouch at the beginning of the large intestine, located in the lower right-hand side of the abdomen. Also called blind gut.

147

blunt dissection

A technique in surgery or anatomical dissection in which tissue planes are separated or opened and underlying structures exposed without cutting. Blunt dissection often involves the use of scissors in an opening, rather than a closing, mode. The closed tips are pushed into tissue and then separated so as to split tissue planes.

148

choledochotomy

Incision into the common bile duct.

149

cholecystitis

Inflammation of the gallbladder.

150

gallstone pancreatitis

Inflammation of the pancreas due to common bile duct obstruction with acute cholecystitis.

151

cholecystectomy

Surgical removal of the gallbladder.

152

enterotomy

Surgical incision into the intestine.

153

gastrojejunostomy

A procedure in which the duodenum is excised or bypassed and the stomach is end-to-end anastomosed to the jejunum.

154

steatohepatitis

Fatty liver.

155

colitis

Inflammation of the colon. Also called colonitis.

156

angiodysplasia

Small vascular abnormalities, especially of the intestinal tract.

157

uropathy

Any disorder involving the urinary tract.

158

psychometrics

The branch of psychology that deals with the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests for the measurement of psychological variables such as intelligence, aptitude, and personality traits. Also called psychometry.

159

plantar

Of, relating to, or occurring on the sole of the foot.

160

dorsiflexion

A bending backwards of any part.

161

pes planus deformity

Flatfeet; a condition in which the arch of the foot is abnormally flattened down so that the entire sole makes contact with the ground.

162

spastic diplegia

A type of cerebral palsy in which there is bilateral spasticity, with the lower limbs more severely affected.

163

tympanoplasty

Surgical repair or reconstruction of the middle ear.

164

myringotomy

Surgical puncture of the tympanic membrane, as for the removal of fluid or the drainage of pus.

165

hemiepiphysiodesis

Also known as guided growth; a surgical technique used to gradually correct angular limb deformity in skeletally immature patients.

166

hydrocephalus

A usually congenital condition in which an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the cerebral ventricles causes enlargement of the skull and compression of the brain, destroying much of the neural tissue.

167

spina bifida

A congenital defect in which the spinal column is imperfectly closed so that part of the meninges or spinal cord protrudes, often resulting in hydrocephalus and other neurological disorders.

168

vertex

The highest point of the skull; the top of the head.

169

spondylosis

Degeneration of the spinal column, especially that resulting in abnormal fusion and immobilization of the vertebral bones.

170

lumbago

A painful condition of the lower back, as one resulting from muscle strain or a slipped disk.

171

costovertebral angle tenderness

Also known as Murphy's punch sign, Pasternacki's sign, or Goldflam's sign; a medical test in which pain is elicited by percussion of the area of the back overlying the kidney (the costovertebral angle, an angle made by the vertebral column and the costal margin). The test is positive in people with an infection around the kidney (perinephric abscess), pyelonephritis, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome or renal stone. Because the kidney is directly anterior to this area, known as the costovertebral angle, tapping disturbs the inflamed tissue, causing pain.

172

pre-excitation syndrome

A cardiac arrhythmia in which the ventricles of the heart become depolarized too early, which leads to their partial premature contraction.

173

laryngomalacia

A softening of the tissues of the larynx.

174

vasovagal

Relating to the action of the vagus nerve on the blood vessels.

175

peritoneal carcinomatosis

A rare type of cancer that occurs in the peritoneum, the thin layer of tissue that covers abdominal organs and surrounds the abdominal cavity. The disease develops when cancers of the appendix, colon, ovaries or other organs spread to the peritoneum and cause tumors to grow.

176

flexion contracture

A flexion deformity with the inability to fully straighten the knee.

177

rhizotomy

Surgical severance of spinal nerve roots to relieve pain or hypertension.

178

apnea

Temporary absence or voluntary cessation of breathing.

179

micturition

Urination.

180

peripheral edema

Accumulation of fluid, causing swelling in tissues perfused by the peripheral vascular system, usually in the lower limbs. In the most dependent parts of the body (those hanging distally), it may be called dependent edema.

181

cerebral atrophy

In brain tissue, atrophy describes a loss of neurons and the connections between them. Atrophy can be generalized, which means that all of the brain has shrunk; or it can be focal, affecting only a limited area of the brain and resulting in a decrease of the functions that area of the brain controls. If the cerebral hemispheres (the two lobes of the brain that form the cerebrum) are affected, conscious thought and voluntary processes may be impaired.

182

global developmental delay

The general term used to describe a condition that occurs during the developmental period of a child between birth and 18 years. It is usually defined by the child being diagnosed with having a lower intellectual functioning than what is perceived as 'normal'.

183

spirometry

The most common of the pulmonary function tests (PFTs), measuring lung function, specifically the amount (volume) and/or speed (flow) of air that can be inhaled and exhaled.

184

cardiomyopathy

An acquired or hereditary disease of the heart muscle.

185

paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

An irregular, often rapid heart rate that commonly causes poor blood flow.

186

perfusion

The passage of fluid through the circulatory system or lymphatic system to an organ or a tissue, usually referring to the delivery of blood to a capillary bed in tissue.

187

pleomorphic

Occurring in various distinct forms.

188

pneumobilia

The presence of gas in the biliary system.

189

rhabdomyolysis

A breakdown of muscle tissue that releases a damaging protein into the blood.

190

ileus

Inability of the intestine (bowel) to contract normally and move waste out of the body.

191

tenotomy

The surgical cutting of a tendon.

192

acromioplasty

An arthroscopic surgical procedure of the acromion. Generally, it implies removal of a small piece of the surface of the bone (acromion) that is in contact with a tendon causing, by friction, damage to the tendon.

193

synovitis

Inflammation of the synovial membrane. This membrane lines joints that possess cavities, known as synovial joints.

194

labrum

A piece of fibrocartilage (rubbery tissue) attached to the rim of the shoulder socket that helps keep the ball of the joint in place.

195

bursa

(pl. bursae)

A fluid-filled sac or saclike cavity, especially one countering friction at a joint.

196

decorticate

To remove the surface layer, membrane, or fibrous cover of (an organ or structure).

197

keloid

A raised scar after an injury has healed.

198

tracheostomy

Creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, with insertion of an indwelling tube to facilitate passage of air or evacuation of secretions.

199

acoustic neuroma

Vestibular schwannoma; a benign growth that arises on the eighth cranial nerve leading from the brain to the inner ear.

200

hydrosalpinx

A distally blocked fallopian tube filled with serous or clear fluid.

201

heterogeneous

Not of uniform composition, quality, or structure.

202

cauda equina syndrome

A condition caused by compression of multiple lumbosacral nerve roots in the spinal canal due to an abrupt prolapse of the lumbar disk.

203

saddle anesthesia

A loss of sensation restricted to the area of the buttocks, perineum, and inner surfaces of the thighs. It is frequently associated with the spine-related injury cauda equina syndrome.

204

autologous reconstruction

A technique that uses tissue--skin, fat, and sometimes muscle--from another place on the body to form a breast shape. The tissue (called a "flap") usually comes from the belly, the back, buttocks, or inner thighs to create the reconstructed breast. Sometimes called autogenous reconstruction.

205

autonomic neuropathy

A group of symptoms that occur when there is damage to the nerves that manage every day body functions. These functions include blood pressure, heart rate, sweating, bowel and bladder emptying, and digestion.

206

dysthymia

A mild but long-term form of depression.

207

cystoprostatectomy

A surgical procedure in which the urinary bladder and prostate gland are removed.

208

hydronephrosis

A condition characterized by excess fluid in a kidney due to a backup of urine.

209

diuresis

Increased or excessive production of urine.

210

agonal

Pertaining to or occurring at the time just before death.