Flashcards in Medical Terminology Deck (210):
Abnormal hardening of body tissue.
A condition in which your heart suddenly can't pump enough blood to meet your body's needs.
congestive heart failure
Inability of the heart to keep up with the demands on it, with failure of the heart to pump blood with normal efficiency.
Part of the hip bone.
Part of the small intestine.
The tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.
One of two tubes each leading from a single kidney and inserting into the urinary bladder.
A condition that is the consequence of a previous disease or injury.
The loss of ability to understand or express speech, caused by brain damage.
The inability or refusal to swallow.
The passage of blood in the feces.
The passage of black, tarry stools.
Sweating, especially to an unusual degree.
Vomiting of blood.
The body weight used for calculating the appropriate dosage of a medication for those whose weight exceeds the usual average range.
mean arterial pressure
The average pressure in a patient's arteries during one cardiac cycle.
peripheral intravenous line
A small, short, plastic tube called a catheter that is put through the skin into a vein in the scalp, hand, arm, or foot.
Glasgow Coma Scale
A neurological scale which aims to give a reliable and objective way of recording the conscious state of a person for initial as well as subsequent assessment.
The process of removing nonliving tissue from pressure ulcers, burns, and other wounds.
A forcepslike instrument for cutting tough tissue, particularly bone.
Cutting into a joint to expose its interior.
(tuberosity of the tibia)
A large oblong elevation at the proximal end of the tibia to which the ligament of the patella attaches.
The tissue, fatty or synovial, between a tendon and its sheath.
The passage of blood from ruptured blood vessels into subcutaneous tissue, marked by a purple discoloration of the skin; larger than a petechia.
A small purplish spot on a body surface, such as the skin or a mucous membrane, caused by a minute hemorrhage.
Excision of all or a portion of the tongue.
hyperbaric oxygen therapy
Treatment in which oxygen is provided in a sealed chamber at an ambient pressure greater than 1 atmosphere.
Surgical preparation of the alveolar ridges for the reception of dentures; shaping and smoothing of socket margins after extraction of teeth with subsequent suturing to ensure optimal healing.
Located or occurring between the ribs.
An intravenous portal, usually placed and left in a vein in one of the patient's arms, and used episodically for fluid or medication infusions. Salt water flushes are used to maintain its patency.
Decreased aeration and collapse of multiple small areas of the lung.
A collapse of lung tissue affecting part or all of one lung. This condition prevents normal oxygen absorption to healthy tissues.
An abnormally high concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood.
A particularly severe episode of asthma that does not respond adequately to ordinary therapeutic measures and usually requires hospitalization.
An abnormal, blood-filled sac formed by dilation of the wall of a blood vessel or heart ventricle.
The cause or origin of a disease or disorder as determined by medical diagnosis.
1. The inability of a bodily organ or system, especially the circulatory system, to maintain adequate physiological function in the presence of disease.
2. The inability to maintain defense mechanisms in response to stress, resulting in personality disturbance or psychological imbalance.
Relatively insensitive to pressure by palpation.
Enlargement of the liver and the spleen.
Splinting device used to stabilize the neck.
Anterior opening to either side of the nasal cavity; nostril.
The tough white fibrous outer envelope of tissue covering all of the eyeball except the cornea.
A yellowish staining of the integument, sclerae, deeper tissues, and excretions with bile pigments, due to increased plasma bile levels.
The mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelid and the exposed surface of the eyeball.
The area where the upper and lower lips meet at the corner of the mouth.
Where a bone brakes in one spot only and stays aligned.
Perceptible by touch.
Intermittent outward movement of the nostrils with each inspiratory effort; indicates an increase in the work of breathing.
A chronic inflammatory disease of the lungs characterized by a narrowing of the airways and attacks of wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath that are induced by triggers such as allergens, exercise, infections, and stress.
Lasting for a long period of time or marked by frequent recurrence, as certain diseases.
A noncontagious inflammation of the skin, characterized chiefly by redness, itching, and the outbreak of lesions that may discharge serous matter and become encrusted and scaly.
Relating to, containing, or producing serum or a substance having a watery consistency.
A flexible tube, usually containing a trocar at one end, that is inserted into a bodily cavity, duct, or vessel to drain fluid or administer a substance such as a medication.
A sharp-pointed surgical instrument, used with a cannula to puncture a body cavity for fluid aspiration.
1. The dose of a drug injected as rapidly a possible into a vein so as to be diluted as little as possible.
2. A chewed-up quantity of food in a state ready to be swallowed.
When the area between the ribs and in the neck sinks in when a person with asthma attempts to inhale. Retractions are a sign someone is working hard to breathe. If a person is having trouble breathing, extra muscles kick into action. These muscles cause retractions, which can be seen as the person tries to inhale.
Insufficient oxygenation of the blood.
Discharge from the nasal mucous membrane, especially when excessive, as with an allergy or infection.
The surgical connection of separate or severed tubular hollow organs to form a continuous channel, as between two parts of the intestine.
An obstruction due to twisting or knotting of the gastrointestinal tract.
Chronic, unexplained pain in the area around the opening of the vagina.
A spring-loaded needle used to create pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery.
A blood clot in a vessel or in one of the chambers of the heart that remains at the point of its formation.
Surgical incision of the chest wall.
The serous membrane enveloping the lungs and lining the walls of the pleural cavity.
The seeping of serous, purulent, or bloody fluid into a body cavity or tissue.
The presence of free air or gas in the pleural cavity.
The mass of tissues and organs separating the sternum in front and the vertebral column behind, containing the heart and its large vessels, trachea, esophagus, thymus, lymph nodes, and other structures and tissues.
A range of movement regularly repeated in performance of a function, e.g., excursion of the jaws in mastication.
coarctation of the aorta
A congenital narrowing of a short section of the main artery of the body, the aorta, usually just beyond the point at which the arteries to the head and arms are given off. The pulses in the arms are much stronger than those in the legs.
Abnormal enlargement of an organ, particularly an organ of the abdominal cavity.
Relaxed, flabby, or without muscle tone.
A loss of cardiac muscle with volume overload and decreased contractility.
The fraction of the total ventricular filling volume that is ejected during each ventricular contraction. The normal EF of the left ventricle is 65%.
Hypertension in the systemic arteries - the vessels that carry blood from the heart to the body's tissues (other than the lungs). High systemic (or body) blood pressure is usually caused by the constriction of the small arteries (arterioles).
To remove a tube, usually an endotracheal anesthesia tube or a Levin gastric suction tube.
An abnormal tangle of arteries and veins in which the arteries feed directly into the veins without a normal intervening capillary bed.
A localized collection of pus in part of the body formed by tissue disintegration and surrounded by an inflamed area.
Containing, discharging, or causing the production of pus.
A severe, chronic, recurrent pus-producing infection of the apocrine sweat glands.
Absence or impairment of the sense of taste.
The vomiting of blood.
The expectoration of blood or of blood-streaked sputum from the larynx, trachea, bronchi, or lungs.
A sensation in which a person is aware of an irregular, hard, or rapid heartbeat.
A normal cardiac rhythm proceeding from the sinoatrial node.
An excessive accumulation of serous fluid in tissue spaces or a body cavity.
A pathological deficiency in the oxygen-carrying component of the blood, measured in unit volume concentrations of hemoglobin, red blood cell volume, or red blood cell number.
Excessive passage of urine.
Chronic excessive thirst and fluid intake.
Having a rapid onset and following a short but severe course.
Painful or difficult urination.
Abnormal hairiness, especially in women.
A rash characterized by intensely itching welts, triggered by the release of histamine and caused by an allergic response to any of multiple agents or conditions, including food, drugs, and infections.
Complete or partial loss of hair from the head or other parts of the body.
Pertaining to the perineum.
Pertaining to the peritoneum.
Surface area between the thighs extending from the coccyx to the pubix that includes the anus posteriorly and the external genitalia anteriorly.
Serous sac consisting of mesothelium and a thin external layer of irregular connective tissue that lines the abdominopelvic cavity and covers most of the viscera contained therein. It forms 2 sacs: the peritoneal (or greater) sac and the omental bursa (lesser sac) connected by the omental foramen.
Pertaining to the outer or fibular side of the leg.
1. Causing little pain.
2. Slow growing.
Reparative or plastic surgery of the scrotum.
Reparative or reconstructive surgery of a meatus or canal.
A developmental anomaly in which the urethra opens inferior to its normal location; usually seen in males, with the opening on the underside of the penis or on the perineum.
The accumulation of excessive amounts of ketone bodies in body tissues and fluids, occurring when fatty acids are incompletely metabolized.
A ketosis-causing diet that is high in fats and proteins and low in carbohydrates, primarily used in the treatment of epilepsy.
A condition of diminished tone or tension that may involve any body structure.
An abnormal, often permanent shortening, as of muscle or scar tissue, that results in distortion or deformity, especially of a joint of the body.
(pl. omenta, omentums)
One of the folds of the peritoneum that connects the stomach with other abdominal organs.
Any fluid exuded out from a tissue or its capillaries as the result of injury, inflammation or infection.
The falling down or slipping out of place of an organ or part, such as the uterus.
Discomfort in breathing that is brought on or aggravated by lying flat.
Disease of the nerve roots.
A sound or noise, as that heard on auscultation.
Abnormal arrangement of organs or parts of the body in relation to each other.
A small histologically recognizable body composed primarily of fine arterioles connecting directly with veins, and having a rich nerve supply.
Obstruction of the normal flow of lymph.
A scar left by the formation of new connective tissue over a healing sore or wound.
A bending or curvature.
An abnormally low level of neutrophils in the circulating blood.
Inhibiting bone marrow activity, resulting in decreased production of blood cells and platelets.
1. Destructive to bone marrow.
3. Arising from diseased bone marrow.
Having a rough, ridged, or wrinkled surface.
A small space or cavity.
Relating to the omentum.
A layer of adipose tissue (usually capsulated) that protects structures from direct impact. Fat pads are found in various locations in the body: beneath the patellar tendon; under the calcaneus; or behind the elbow.
To shrink, draw back, or pull apart.
The layer of tissue between the dermis and muscle, consisting of adipose and connective tissues, blood vessels, and nerves.
Navel; the pit in the center of the abdominal wall marking the point where the umbilical cord entered the fetus.
1. The quality or condition of being tortuous; twistedness or crookedness.
2. A bent or twisted part, passage, or thing.
Surgical removal of a stone or stones from the urinary tract.
A supine position of the body with the legs separated, flexed, and supported in raised stirrups, originally used for lithotomy and later also for childbirth.
The retroperitoneal space; the space between the peritoneum and the posterior abdominal wall.
Endoscopic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.
The end of the colon is brought through the abdominal wall, where it may be turned under, like a cuff. The edges of the colon are then stitched to the skin of the abdominal wall to form an opening called astoma. Stool drains from the stoma into a bag or pouch attached to the abdomen.
Surgical excision of the rectum and the sigmoid colon.
Resection of the rectosigmoid colon, with closure of the rectal stump and colostomy.
An operation to remove part of the left side of the colon known as the sigmoid colon.
The surgical lysis of adhesions, usually by laparoscopy.
An S-shaped section of the colon between the descending section and the rectum. Also called sigmoid flexure.
The short mesentery of the appendix lying behind the terminal ileum, in which the appendicular artery courses.
The large pouch at the beginning of the large intestine, located in the lower right-hand side of the abdomen. Also called blind gut.
A technique in surgery or anatomical dissection in which tissue planes are separated or opened and underlying structures exposed without cutting. Blunt dissection often involves the use of scissors in an opening, rather than a closing, mode. The closed tips are pushed into tissue and then separated so as to split tissue planes.
Incision into the common bile duct.
Inflammation of the gallbladder.
Inflammation of the pancreas due to common bile duct obstruction with acute cholecystitis.
Surgical removal of the gallbladder.
Surgical incision into the intestine.
A procedure in which the duodenum is excised or bypassed and the stomach is end-to-end anastomosed to the jejunum.
Inflammation of the colon. Also called colonitis.
Small vascular abnormalities, especially of the intestinal tract.
Any disorder involving the urinary tract.
The branch of psychology that deals with the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests for the measurement of psychological variables such as intelligence, aptitude, and personality traits. Also called psychometry.
Of, relating to, or occurring on the sole of the foot.
A bending backwards of any part.
pes planus deformity
Flatfeet; a condition in which the arch of the foot is abnormally flattened down so that the entire sole makes contact with the ground.
A type of cerebral palsy in which there is bilateral spasticity, with the lower limbs more severely affected.
Surgical repair or reconstruction of the middle ear.
Surgical puncture of the tympanic membrane, as for the removal of fluid or the drainage of pus.
Also known as guided growth; a surgical technique used to gradually correct angular limb deformity in skeletally immature patients.
A usually congenital condition in which an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the cerebral ventricles causes enlargement of the skull and compression of the brain, destroying much of the neural tissue.
A congenital defect in which the spinal column is imperfectly closed so that part of the meninges or spinal cord protrudes, often resulting in hydrocephalus and other neurological disorders.
The highest point of the skull; the top of the head.
Degeneration of the spinal column, especially that resulting in abnormal fusion and immobilization of the vertebral bones.
A painful condition of the lower back, as one resulting from muscle strain or a slipped disk.
costovertebral angle tenderness
Also known as Murphy's punch sign, Pasternacki's sign, or Goldflam's sign; a medical test in which pain is elicited by percussion of the area of the back overlying the kidney (the costovertebral angle, an angle made by the vertebral column and the costal margin). The test is positive in people with an infection around the kidney (perinephric abscess), pyelonephritis, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome or renal stone. Because the kidney is directly anterior to this area, known as the costovertebral angle, tapping disturbs the inflamed tissue, causing pain.
A cardiac arrhythmia in which the ventricles of the heart become depolarized too early, which leads to their partial premature contraction.
A softening of the tissues of the larynx.
Relating to the action of the vagus nerve on the blood vessels.
A rare type of cancer that occurs in the peritoneum, the thin layer of tissue that covers abdominal organs and surrounds the abdominal cavity. The disease develops when cancers of the appendix, colon, ovaries or other organs spread to the peritoneum and cause tumors to grow.
A flexion deformity with the inability to fully straighten the knee.
Surgical severance of spinal nerve roots to relieve pain or hypertension.
Temporary absence or voluntary cessation of breathing.
Accumulation of fluid, causing swelling in tissues perfused by the peripheral vascular system, usually in the lower limbs. In the most dependent parts of the body (those hanging distally), it may be called dependent edema.
In brain tissue, atrophy describes a loss of neurons and the connections between them. Atrophy can be generalized, which means that all of the brain has shrunk; or it can be focal, affecting only a limited area of the brain and resulting in a decrease of the functions that area of the brain controls. If the cerebral hemispheres (the two lobes of the brain that form the cerebrum) are affected, conscious thought and voluntary processes may be impaired.
global developmental delay
The general term used to describe a condition that occurs during the developmental period of a child between birth and 18 years. It is usually defined by the child being diagnosed with having a lower intellectual functioning than what is perceived as 'normal'.
The most common of the pulmonary function tests (PFTs), measuring lung function, specifically the amount (volume) and/or speed (flow) of air that can be inhaled and exhaled.
An acquired or hereditary disease of the heart muscle.
paroxysmal atrial fibrillation
An irregular, often rapid heart rate that commonly causes poor blood flow.
The passage of fluid through the circulatory system or lymphatic system to an organ or a tissue, usually referring to the delivery of blood to a capillary bed in tissue.
Occurring in various distinct forms.
The presence of gas in the biliary system.
A breakdown of muscle tissue that releases a damaging protein into the blood.
Inability of the intestine (bowel) to contract normally and move waste out of the body.
The surgical cutting of a tendon.
An arthroscopic surgical procedure of the acromion. Generally, it implies removal of a small piece of the surface of the bone (acromion) that is in contact with a tendon causing, by friction, damage to the tendon.
Inflammation of the synovial membrane. This membrane lines joints that possess cavities, known as synovial joints.
A piece of fibrocartilage (rubbery tissue) attached to the rim of the shoulder socket that helps keep the ball of the joint in place.
A fluid-filled sac or saclike cavity, especially one countering friction at a joint.
To remove the surface layer, membrane, or fibrous cover of (an organ or structure).
A raised scar after an injury has healed.
Creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, with insertion of an indwelling tube to facilitate passage of air or evacuation of secretions.
Vestibular schwannoma; a benign growth that arises on the eighth cranial nerve leading from the brain to the inner ear.
A distally blocked fallopian tube filled with serous or clear fluid.
Not of uniform composition, quality, or structure.
cauda equina syndrome
A condition caused by compression of multiple lumbosacral nerve roots in the spinal canal due to an abrupt prolapse of the lumbar disk.
A loss of sensation restricted to the area of the buttocks, perineum, and inner surfaces of the thighs. It is frequently associated with the spine-related injury cauda equina syndrome.
A technique that uses tissue--skin, fat, and sometimes muscle--from another place on the body to form a breast shape. The tissue (called a "flap") usually comes from the belly, the back, buttocks, or inner thighs to create the reconstructed breast. Sometimes called autogenous reconstruction.
A group of symptoms that occur when there is damage to the nerves that manage every day body functions. These functions include blood pressure, heart rate, sweating, bowel and bladder emptying, and digestion.
A mild but long-term form of depression.
A surgical procedure in which the urinary bladder and prostate gland are removed.
A condition characterized by excess fluid in a kidney due to a backup of urine.
Increased or excessive production of urine.