Medical Terminology CH 8 Blood And Lymph Systems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Medical Terminology CH 8 Blood And Lymph Systems Deck (133)
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1

Blast/o

-blast

Germ or bud

2

Chrom/o
Chromat/o

Color

3

Chyl/o

Juice

4

Hem/o
Hemat/o

Blood

5

Immun/o

Safe

6

Lymph/o

Clear fluid

7

Myel/o

Bone marrow (also spinal cord)

8

Phag/o

Eat or swallow

9

Plas/o

Formation

10

Morph/o

Form

11

Reticul/o

A net

12

Splen/o

Spleen

13

Thromb/o

Clot

14

Thym/o

Thymus gland

15

Plasma

Liquid portion of the blood and lymph
Contains water, proteins, salts, nutrients, hormones, vitamins, cellular components like leukocytes, erythrocytes, platelets

16

Serum

Liquid portion of the blood left after the clotting process

17

Erythrocyte

Red blood cell that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide within bloodstream

18

Hemoglobin

Protein-iron compound contained in erythrocyte that has binding capabilities for the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide

19

Leukocyte

White blood cell that protects the body from invasion of harmful substances

20

Granulocytes

Group of leukocytes that contains granules in their cytoplasm

21

Neutrophil

A granular leukocyte, neutral stain, fights infection by swallowing bacteria (phagocytosis)

22

Polymorphonuclear leukocyte

Another term for neutrophil

23

Band

Immature neutrophil

24

Eosinophil

Granular leukocyte, rose color stain, increases with allergy and some infections

25

Basophil

Granular leukocyte, dark stain, brings anticoagulant substances to inflamed tissues

26

Agranulocytes

Group of leukocytes without granules

27

Lymphocytes

Agranulocytic leukocyte, active in process of immunity

28

What are the 4 categories of lymphocytes?

T cells (thymus dependent)
B cells (bone marrow derived)
NK cells (natural killers)
K-type cells

29

Monocytes

Agranulocytic leukocyte that performs phagocytosis to fight infection

30

Platelets

Thrombocytes; cell fragments in blood essential for clotting (coagulation)

31

Where does the upper right quadrant of the body drain lymph?

Right lymphatic duct

32

Where d Rd the left side of the head, neck, chest, left arm, abdomen, lower extremities drain lymph?

Thoracic duct

33

Thymus

Primary gland of the lymphatic system
Helps maintain body's immune response by producing T lymphocytes

34

Spleen

Filters out aging blood cells, removes cellular debris by phagocytosis

35

Lymph

Fluid originating in tissues and organs,l that's circulated through lymph vessels

36

Lymph capillaries

Microscopic vessels that draw lymph from the tissues to lymph vessels

37

Lymph vessels

Vessels that receive lymph from the lymph capillaries and circulate it to the lymph nodes

38

Lacteals

Specialized lymph vessels in the small intestines that absorb fat into the bloodstream

39

Chyle

White/pale substance of the lymph that contains fatty substances absorbed by the lacteals

40

Lymph nodes

Small oval structures that filter the lymph received from the lymph vessels

41

What are the major locations of lymph nodes?

Cervical region, axillary region, inguinal region

42

Lymph ducts

Collecting changes that carry lymph from the lymph nodes to the veins

43

Right lymphatic duct

Receives lymph from the upper right part of the body

44

Thoracic duct

Receives lymph from the left side of the head neck chest abdomen left arm and lower extremities

45

Antigen

A substance that, when introduced into the body, causes the formation of antibodies against it.

46

Antibody

Substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates an antigen that has entered the body

47

Immunoglobulins

(Ig) protein antibodies secreted by B lymphocytes that protect the body from invasion of foreign pathogens

48

5 major classes of immunoglobulins

IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM

49

Immunity

Process of disease protection induced by exposure to an antigen

50

Active immunity

Immunity that protects the body against a future infection, as the result of antibodies that develop naturally after contracting an infection or artificially after administration of a vaccine

51

Passive immunity

Immunity resulting from antibodies that are conveyed naturally through the placenta to a fetus or artificially by injection of a serum containing antibodies

52

Microcytosis

Small red blood cells

53

Macrocytosis

Large red blood cells

54

Anisocytosis

Unequal sized red blood cells

55

Poikilocytosis

Irregularly shaped red blood cells

56

Reticulocytosis

An increase in immature red blood cells in the blood

57

Erythropenia

An abnormal decrease of red blood cells

58

Lymphocytopenia

An abnormal decrease of lymphocytes

59

Neutropenia

Abnormal decrease of neutrophils

60

Pancytopenia

An abnormal decrease of all cellular components in the blood

61

Hemolysis

Breakdown of the cell membrane

62

Immunocompromised

Impaired immunological defenses caused by an immunodeficiency disorder or immunosuppressant agents

63

Immunosuppression

Impaired ability to provide an immune response

64

Lymphadenopathy

Diseased lymph nodes/ enlarged lymph nodes

65

Splenomegaly

Enlargement of the spleen

66

AIDS
Caused by?
Effects?
Transmitted by?

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
Caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that renders immune cells ineffective, permitting opportunistic infections, malignancies, and neurological diseases to develop
Transmitted sexually or through exposure to contaminated blood

67

Anemia

Diagnosis
Reduction of RBC or hemoglobin
Diminished ability of RBC to transport oxygen to tissues

68

Aplastic anemia

Normocytic-normochromic
Failure of bone marrow to produce RBC

69

Iron-deficiency anemia

Microcytic-hypochromic
Lack of iron, affecting production of hemoglobin
Small RBC containing low amounts of hemoglobin

70

Pernicious anemia

Macrocytic-normochromic
Inadequate supply of Vit B12
Causing RBC to become large, varied in shape, reduced in number

71

Autoimmune disease

Abnormal function of the immune system that causes body to produce antibodies against itself, resulting in tissue destruction or loss of function

Examples! Rheumatoid arthritis, lupus

72

Erythroblastosis fetalis

Disorder that results from the incompatibility of a fetus with an Rh-positive blood factor and a mother with an Rh-negative blood factor
Causing RBC destruction in the fetus
Blood transfusion necessary to save fetus

73

Rh factor

Presence or lack of antigens on the surface of RBC that may cause a reaction btwn the blood of the mother and fetus, resulting in fetus anemia

74

Rh positive

Presence of antigens on surface of RBC

75

Rh negative

Absence of antigens on surface of RBC

76

Hemochromatosis

Hereditary disorder
Excessive buildup of iron deposits in the body

77

Hemophilia

Group of hereditary bleeding disorders
There is a defect in clotting factors necessary for coagulation of blood.

78

Leukemia

Chronic or acute malignant disease of the blood forming organs, marked by abnormal leukocytes in the blood and bone marrow
Classified according to the types of WBC affected

79

Myelodysplasia

Bone marrow faulty formation
Disorder within bone marrow
Proliferation of abnormal stem cells

80

Lymphoma

Any neoplastic disorder of lymph tissue, usually malignant


New formation pertaining to lymph tumor

81

Metastasis

Cancer cells spread by blood or lymph circulation to distant organs

Beyond stop

82

Mononucleosis

Condition caused by Epstein Barr virus
Increase in mononuclear cells (monocytes and lymphocytes) in the blood, along with enlarged lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), fatigue, sore throat (pharyngitis)

83

Polycythemia

Many cell blood condition
Increase in the number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in the blood

84

Septicemia

Systemic disease caused by infection of micro organisms and their toxins in the circulating blood

85

Thrombocytopenia

Clot cell abnormal reduction
Bleeding disorder
Abnormal decrease in the number of platelets in the blood, impairs clotting process

86

Blood chemistry

A test of the fluid portion of blood to measure the presence of a chemical constituent ex. Glucose, cholesterol

87

Blood chemistry panels

Specialized batteries of automated blood chemistry tests performed on a single sample of blood
Used as a general screen for disease or to target specific organs or conditions
Ex. metabolic panel, lipid panel

88

Basic metabolic panel

Battery of tests used as a general screen for disease: calcium, carbon dioxide, chloride, creatinine, glucose, potassium, sodium and blood urea nitrogen

89

Comprehensive Metabolic panel

Tests in addition to the basic
Albumin, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, protein, ALT, AST

90

Blood culture

A test to determine if infection is present in the bloodstream by isolating a specimen of blood in an environment that encourages the growth of microorganisms
The specimen is observed and the organisms that grow in the culture are identified

91

CD4 cell count

A measure of the number of CD4 cells (a subset of T lymphocytes) in the blood
Used in monitoring the course of HIV and timing the treatments of AIDS
Normal adult range is 600-1,500 cells

92

Complete blood count

CBC
Screen of general health or for diagnostic purposes
WBC RBC HGB HCT MCV MCH MCHC PLT

93

White blood count

WBC
Number of WBC per cubic millimeter

94

Red blood cell

RBC
Number of RBC per cubic millimeter

95

Hemoglobin

HGB or Hgb
Test to determine blood level of hemoglobin
Expressed in grams

96

Hematocrit

HCT or Hct
Measurement of the percentage of packed RBC in a given volume of blood

97

Blood indices

Calculations of RBC HGB HCT results to determine the average size, hemoglobin concentration, and content of RBC for classification of anemia

98

Mean corpuscular volume

Mean cell volume MCV
calculation of the volume of individual cells in cubic microns using HCT and RNC results

MCV=HCT/RBC

99

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin

Mean cell hemoglobin MCH
Calculation of the content in weight of hemoglobin in the average RBC using HGB and RBC results

MCH = HGB/RBC

100

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration

Mean cell hemoglobin concentration MCHC
Calculation of the average hemoglobin concentration in each RBC using HGB and HCT results

MCHC = HGB/HCT

101

Differential count

Determination of the number of each type of WBC seen on a stained blood smear
Each type is counted and reported as a percentage of the total examined

102

Red cell morphology

The condition of the size and shape of the RBC on the smeared slide is noted

103

Platelet count

PLT
a calculation of the number of thrombocytes in the blood
Normal range 150,000-450,000/cubic millimeters

104

Erythrocytes sedimentation rate

ESR
A timed test to measure the rate at which RBC settle brought a given volume of plasma

105

Partial thromboplastin time

PTT
A test to determine coagulation defects such as platelet disorders

106

Thromboplastin

Substance present in tissues platelets and leukocytes that's necessary for coagulation

107

Prothrombin time

PT
a test to measure the activity of prothrombin in the blood

108

Prothrombin

A protein substance in the blood that is essential to the clotting process

109

Venipuncture

A puncture of a vein to withdraw blood for testing

110

Phlebotomy

Same as venipuncture

111

Bone marrow aspiration

Needle aspiration of bone marrow tissue for pathological examination

112

Bone marrow biopsy

Pathological examination of the bone marrow tissue

113

Lymphangiogram

An X-ray image of a lymph node or vessel taken after injection of a contrast medium

114

Computed tomography

CT
Full body X-ray CT images are used to detect tumors and cancers such as lymphoma

115

Positron emission tomography

PET
radionuclide scans, especially of the whole body, are useful in determining the recurrence of cancers or to measure response to therapy
Commonly used in evaluating lymphoma

116

Bone marrow transplant

The transplantation of healthy bone marrow from a compatible donor to a disease recipient to stimulate blood cell production

117

Lymphadenectomy

The removal of a Lymph node

118

Lymphadenotomy

An incision into a lymph node

119

Lymph node dissection

Removal of possible cancer carrying lymph nodes for pathological examination

120

Splenectomy

Removal of spleen

121

Thymectomy

Removal of thymus gland

122

Blood transfusion

Introduction of blood products into he circulation of a recipient whose blood volume is reduced or deficient in some manner

123

Autologous blood

Blood donated by and stored for a patient for future personal use
Ex: upcoming surgery

124

Homologous blood

Blood voluntarily donated by any person for transfusion to a compatible recipient

125

Blood component therapy

Transfusion of specific blood as packed RBC, platelets, plasma

126

Cross matching

Method of matching donors blood to the recipients by mixing a sample in a test tube to determine compatibility

127

Chemotherapy

The treatment of malignancies infections and other diseases with chemical agents that destroy selected cells or impair their ability to reproduce

128

Immunotherapy

Use of biological agents to prevent or test a disease by stimulating the body's own defense mechanisms
As seen in the treatment of AIDS, cancer, allergy

129

Plasmapheresis

Removal of plasma from the body with separation and extraction of specific elements followed by re infusion

Apheresis = withdrawal

130

Anticoagulant

A drug that prevents clotting of the blood

131

Hemostatic

A drug that stops the flow of the blood within the vessels

132

Vasoconstrictor

A drug that causes a narrowing of blood vessels, decreasing blood flow

133

Vasodilator

Drug that causes dilation of blood vessels, increasing blood flow