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Flashcards in Medicine Deck (24):
1

Which vitamins are deplete within year?

B12 and A

2

Which vitamins deplete after weeks?

Folates and B1

3

What is thiamine pyrophosphate responsible for?

Carbohydrates metabolism.

- decarboxylation of acetyl coA in mitichodria
- decarb of alpha ketoacids in kerbs cycle

Has a role in peripheral nervous conduction.

4

B1 sources

Cereal and legumes.
Pork and beef meat.

5

Deficiency B1 leads to?

- inability to metabolize glucose for nerves conduction.
- increase lactic and pyruvic acids which lead to vasodilation and increase cardiac output.

6

Causes of deficiency?

Poor intake
Hyperemesis gravidarum
Chronic illnesses as Cancer
Alcoholism

7

B1 clinical features (disease)?

Dry beriberi
1. peripheral neuropathy:
Sensory and motor pain and parasthesia

2.Cerebral involvement :
Wernicke-encephalopathy
mental impairment
cerebellar ataxia
ophthalmoplegia
Korsakoff syndrome :
loss of new memory
confabulation
Wet beriberi
high output failure


8

Treatment or diagnosis of b1 deficiency?

Levels of thiamine in blood
100mg/d parentral for 7 days then orally till improved

9

Clinical manifestations of B2 deficiency?


1. Mucocutaneous lesion
angular stomatitis
cheilosis.
red inflamed tongue

2. Seborrhoeic dermatitis
(face around the nose)

10

Diagnoses and treatment of b2 deficiency?

Diagnosis
serum or urinary level

Treatment
Riboflavin 10 mg daily

11

Forms of Vitamin B three?

nicotinic acid
nicotinamide

12

Functions b3?

Oxidative functions in production of energy and DNA repair

13

How can it be synthesized?

From tryptophan

14

Clinical manifestation of B3 deficiency?

Pellagra: dermatitis dementia diarrhea

15

Diagnosis and treatment of B3 deficiency?



Diagnosis
Urinary 2 pyridone and 2 methyl nicotinamide

Treatment Nicotinamide 300 mg daily by mouth

16

Forms of B6?

Pyridoxine
Pyridoxal
Pyridoxamine

17

Functions of B6?


cofactor of many enzymes involved in the metabolism of many amino acids.

neurotransmitters synthesis

Vitamine metabolism as niacin

18

Which drugs cause B6 deficiency?

Isoniazid
Hydralazine
Penicillamine

19

Clinical manifestations of B6 deficiency?

1. mucosal changes
2. The peripheral neuropathy

20

Treatment of B6 deficiency?

100 mg daily should not be exceeded.

21

What is the function of B 12?

Cofactor for activation of folate

22

What causes B12 deficiency?

Deficiency
1. Low dietary intake, Vegans
2. Impaired absorption
Stomach : Pernicious anaemia Gastrectomy
Congenital deficiency of intrinsic factor
Small bowel: ileal disease or resection Bacterial overgrowth
Diphyllobothrium latum

23

Clinical features of b12 deficiency?


megaloblastic anemia

glossitis and angular stomatitis.

The neurological changes
polyneuropathy
subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord
psychiatric problems depression
Dementia
optic atrophy

polyneuropathy
symmetrical paraesthesiae in the fingers and toes

subacute combined degeneration
( posterior, lateral columns of the spinal cord)

loss of vibration sense and proprioception
sensory ataxia
progressive weakness
Paraplegia may result.

24

Diagnosis and treatment of B12 deficiency?

Investigations
Hematological findings
features of a megaloblastic anemia
2. Bone marrow
features of megaloblastic erythropoiesis (
3. Serum vitamin B12

Treatment
Hydroxocobalamin 1000 μg can be given intramuscularly.