Flashcards in Medicines Deck (15):
What is a drug?
A substance which can alter the biochemical processes in the body
What are medicines?
Drugs with a beneficial effect.
Give an example of an ancient medicine.
The bark of willow tree was used to receive pain, lower fever and to reduce inflammation. (Analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory)
How is aspirin made?
Salicin is hydrolysed to produce glucose and salicylic alcohol.
Salicyl alcohol can be oxidised to salicylic acid.
Salicylic acid is treated with ethanoic anhydride.
Acetylsalicylic acid is produced.
What is bad about using salicylic acid as a medicine?
Caused irritation and bleeding in the stomach and intestines.
How do medicines work?
They bind to receptors
What are catalytic receptors?
Enzymes which are receptor proteins within cells and act as catalysts within the body.
What and how binds to protein receptor cells on the surface of the cell membrane?
The biologically active molecule fits in and binds to the clefts of a membrane embedded receptor protein.
What is important about the shape of the molecule that binds to the receptor?
It must complement the shape of the receptor site.
What forces hold the molecule into the binding site?
hydrogen bonds, van der vals forces or even ionic bonds.
What is an agonist?
It mimics the body's naturally active molecule and, on binding to the site, triggers the same response as the natural molecule.
What is an atagonist?
An agonist binds more strongly to the receptor. Prevents the active molecule from binding and therefore the natural response as well.
Give an example of an agonist
Give an example of an antagonist