Medieval England 1000-1500 Flashcards

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1
Q

What is the historical context of the Anglo-Saxon Period?

A
  • 90% rural population
    pop= 1.7m-2m
  • war,disease, poor harvests
  • Ongoing conflict (scottish and vikings)
  • Trade in towns - oppoutunity for crime
  • social strucuture very strict
    nobles, freemen and serfs
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2
Q

What was the role of authority of the Anglo-Saxon Period?

A
  • Kings peace
  • community made their own laws
  • nobles could avise the king on new laws
  • king Ethelred attacked viking settlers to gain control of land
  • increasing influence of king and church; capital punishment to boost power and ‘saving souls
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3
Q

What is the religious context of the Anglo-Saxon Period?

A

church was extemely wealthy and powerful
- collected taxes
- owned 1/5 of all welath in england
- huge influence over abbeys and monastries
- large, central, intimidating buildings

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4
Q

What is the nature of crime and laws of the Anglo-Saxon Period?

A
  • crimes against property,person and authority
  • moral crimes
  • treason threatened the kings power
  • the king issues ‘codes of law’
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5
Q

What is the nature of law enforcement and policing of the Anglo-Saxon Period?

A
  • collective responsibility
  • tithings
  • hue and cry
  • shire reeve appointed by the local people
  • trial by ordeal
  • trial by jury
  • oaths and oath helper
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6
Q

What is the nature of punishment of the Anglo-Saxon Period?

A

aim of deterrence
- wergild
the accused pay the victim’s family a fine
- stocks and pillory
- capital and coporal punishment
- hanging for serious crimes eg. treason and arson
- fines

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7
Q

What is the historical context of the Norman Period?

A
  • 1066 - **Battle of Hastings/ Norman Conquest **
  • william needed to show his visible strength over anglo-saxons
  • small communties (but towns are growing)
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8
Q

What was the role of authority of the Norman Period?

A

CONTINUITY
- Kings peace changed to Kings Mund

CHANGE
- laws more centralised and uniform
- power of the king increased

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9
Q

What is the religious context of the Norman Period?

A

CONTINUITY
- Powerful influence of Church

CHANGE
- Increasing influence of the Church

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10
Q

What is the nature of crime and laws of the Norman Period?

A

CONTINUITY
- local community still makes some decisions on laws

CHANGE
- forest laws and poaching
- outlaws
- fewer decision on law made by communities

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11
Q

What is the nature of law enforcement and policing of the Norman Period?

A

CONTINUITY
- collective responsibility
- tithings
- hue and cry
- shire reeve appointed by the local people
- trial by ordeal
- trial by jury
- oaths and oath helper

CHANGE
- castles to keep control
- trial by combat
- feudal system
king.noble.knights, serfs
- domesday book

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12
Q

What is the nature of punishment of the Norman Period?

A

acted as deterrent
CONTINUITY
- collective responsibility
- hanging, maiming

CHANGE
- increased use of harsh punishments eg. branding/castration - deterrent
- wergild abolished. mudrum fine
- poaching punished as a capital crime
- punishments aimed at whole communities eg. destroyed crops, causing a famine and 100k people to die

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13
Q

What is the historical context of the Later-Middle Ages?

A
  • 1348 black death; 1/3 of the peopulation died
  • the peasants revolt
  • towns growing eg. London 30k
  • parliament was established to help make decisions & laws
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14
Q

What was the role of authority of the Later-Middle Ages?

A

CONTINUITY
- ruling class still created laws to protect their own interests (power and wealth) ie. like the poaching laws

CHANGE
- more centralised and unified
- parliament was established to help make decisions & laws
- government appointed government officials not village locaks

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15
Q

What is the religious context of the Later-Middle Ages?

A

CONTINUITY
- role of the king still closely linked to god

CHANGE
- people started to question the practices of the church (herectics)
- 1215- the pope ended trial by ordeal
- benefit of clergy and sanctuary

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16
Q

What is the nature of crime and laws of the Later-Middle Ages?

A

aim of deterrence
CONTINUITY
- ruling class still created laws to protect their own interests (power and wealth) ie. like the poaching laws

CHANGE
- Parliament and the king carried out law-making
- The statute of Labourers 1351 - made it illegal to ask for higher wages
- Heresy Laws 1382, 1401, 1414
- high treason - challenging the king

17
Q

What is the nature of law enforcement and policing of the Later-Middle Ages?

A

CONTINUITY
- collective responsibility
- hue and cry

CHANGE
- JPS- made law enforcmenet for uniform (replaced shire reeve)
- Assize of Clarendon- improved court ans prison system
- Justices in Eyre- royal judges visit most serious cases of crime
- coroners created in 1194 to investigate unexplained deaths

18
Q

What is the nature of punishment of the Later-Middle Ages?

A

CONTINUITY
- fines
- corporal punishment and executions

CHANGE
- Punishment for high treason was to be hanged, drawn and quatered
- punishment for heresy was burning at the stake

19
Q

CASE STUDY: the church in the Middle Ages

A

church was extemely **wealthy and powerful **
- collected taxes
- owned 1/5 of all welath in england
- huge influence over abbeys and monastries
- large, central, intimidating buildings

  • trial by ordeal
    1215- the pope ended trial by ordeal
  • church courts and the king
    11th century- moral courts set up to offer reform
    12th century- limited power of the church as it challenged the kings authority (constitution of clarendon)
  • benefit of clergy
  • sanctuary
    1536- ended during reign on Henry VIII