Meds for Clinical Flashcards Preview

Ducklings > Meds for Clinical > Flashcards

Flashcards in Meds for Clinical Deck (100):
1

mannitol

osmotic diuretic

Theraputics: prophalaxis of renal failure,
intracranial pressure

needs filter

2

amiodarone

antiarrhythmic agent

needs filter

3

atropine

involuntary nervous system blocker

used for bradycardia

can make eyes look fixed and dilated

4

cardizem

calcium channel blocker and antihypertensive

can treat high blood pressure and chest pain

5

prochlorperazine

antipsychotic

can treat nausea and vomiting, anxiety and schizophrenia

6

meclizine

antihistamine

7

midazolam

versed- sedative

8

propofol

anesthetic

9

lorazepam

sedative - used to treat seizures

10

vasopressin

hormone- can be used to treat diabetes incipidus can also be used in stomach surgery and used to treat blood pressure in patients that are in vasodilatory shock

11

adenosine

antiarrhythmic agent to treat SVT

12

epinephrine

blood pressure support and vasocontrictor

can treat asthma, allergic reactions as well

13

lidocaine

antiarrythmic agent, aesthetic

can treat irregular heartbeats as well as numb the skin

14

procainamide

antiarrythmic medication

15

sotalol

beta blocker

16

succinylcholine

paralytic

17

etomidate

general anesthetic

18

duloxetine

nerve pain and antidepressant

19

streptomycin

tb med, gram negative bacterial, antibiotic

20

clonazepam

anti anxiety

21

acetylcystine

antidote for tylenol overdose

22

romazicon

reverses benzos

23

venlafaxine

effexor- antidepressant

24

rivaroxaban

xarelto- blood thinner

25

nicardipine

calcium channel blocker

antihypertensive

26

colchicine

treats gout

27

amitriptyline

nerve pain and antidepressant

28

fluoxetine

prozac, SSRI

29

diclofenac

NSAID

30

glipizide

anti-diabetic medication

31

Dabagatrain (Pradaxa)

Anticoagulant

32

Apixaban (Eliquis)

Anticoagulant

33

Heparin

Anticoagulant

34

Warfarin (Coumadin)

Anticoagulant

35

Aspirin

Antiplatelet

36

Clopidogrel (Plavix)

Antiplatelet

37

Benazepril (Lotensin)

Ace inhibitor

MOA- decreases levels of angiotension 2 thus dilating the vasculature

38

Catopril (Capoten)

Ace inhibitor

MOA- decreases levels of angiotension 2 thus dilating the vasculature

39

Enalopril (Vasotec)

Ace inhibitor

MOA- decreases levels of angiotension 2 thus dilating the vasculature

40

Losartan (Cozzar)

ARB

Angiotension 2 receptor blocker

no accumulation of bradykinin

41

Valsartan (Diovan)

ARB

Angiotension 2 receptor blocker

no accumulation of bradykinin

42

prednisone

steroid

MOA- inhibits multiple inflammatory cytokines, produces multiple glucocorticoid and mineral corticoid effects

Primary therapeutic uses: Asthma, MS, Adrenal insufficiency

Side Effects: Fluid Retention, mood swings, hypokalemia

Contraindications: active infection, diabetes, hypothyroidism

43

Ibuprofen

NSAID

MOA: inhibits cyclooxgenase reducing prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis, reversible

Primary Therapeutic uses: fever, arthritis, anti-inflammatory

Side Effects: rash, constipation, abdominal pain,

Contraindications: GI bleed, CHF, HTN

Drug Interactions: Tylenol, Aspirin, Beta Blockers

44

Acetaminophen

MOA: antipyretic effect via direct action on the hypothalamic heat regulation center (Moa unlike other NSAIDS, limited to CNS-.---not for inflammation)

Primary Therapeutic uses: Fever Pain

Side Effects: Nausea, rash, headache

Contraindications: hepatic impairment, renal impairment
Malnutrition

Drug Interactions: avoid barbiturates, rifampins, ethanol

45

CELECOXIB (Celebrex)

MOA- Cox2 inhibitor

Primary therapeutic uses: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, pain, analgesia, inflammation

Adverse drug effects- GI ulcers, CV events, renal impairment, sulfa allergy…increased risk of stroke and heart attack
Contraindications: pregnant, 3rd trimester, GI bleeding, HTN

Drug Interactions: Beta Blockers, ethanol, amiodarone


46

Ethacrynic Acid
Bumetamide
Torsemide,
Furosemide,

Loop Diuretic, MOA To prevent the active reabsorption of NaCl by 20% at the ascending loop of henle

47

spironolactone

aldosterone antagonists,
MOA Aldosterone Antagonists work by blocking the effects of aldosterone, (selective blockade of aldosterone receptors)

the net effect is less sodium potassium pump production,

they retain k and excrete Na

48

eplerenone

aldosterone antagonists,
MOA Aldosterone Antagonists work by blocking the effects of aldosterone, (selective blockade of aldosterone receptors)

the net effect is less sodium potassium pump production,

they retain k and excrete Na

49

triamterene

non-aldosterone antagonist

MOA- block sodium potassium pumps

USES- electrolyte benefits

50

amiloride

non-aldosterone antagonist

MOA- block sodium potassium pumps

USES- electrolyte benefits

51

HCTZ

Thiazide diuretic-

MOA works at the distal convoluted tubule,
blocks 10% of sodium and water from being reabsorbed.

52

Diuretic therapy:
MOA-

General diuretics prevent active NaCl reabsorption and by doing this, it will limit the passive reabsorption of water through the concentration gradient.

53

Loop diuretics (how do they work?)

work by preventing the reabsorption of 20% of solute.

54

Telmisartan

ARB

Angiotension 2 receptor blocker

no accumulation of bradykinin

55

Losartan

ARB

Angiotension 2 receptor blocker

no accumulation of bradykinin

56

metolazone

thiazide diuretic
MOA works at the distal convoluted tubule,
blocks 10% of sodium and water from being reabsorbed.

57

Albuterol

Beta 2 agonist

58

Bethanechol

Cholinergic agonists

MOA: Reversibly binds to muscarinic receptors

Makes muscarinic man: <3 decreased, sweaty, snotty, drool,reflux, wheeze, congestion, poopy, peeing, pupils dilated, boner,

Their competition is acetylcholine

Use in chronic constipation
Urinary retention
Xerostomia
Glaucoma

Atropine is antidote

59

Rapid Acting NOVALOG- (Aspart)

Shorter acting insulin- take right before you eat!

Administration- bolus insulin,( fast acting, in and out quickly)

Purpose Prandial or bolus insulin always used in combo with basal to match carbohydrate intake

Continuous infusion for basal and bolus for prandial in PUMPS.

Also used for sliding scale

60

Regular Insulin

SLOWER ACTING- clear

Regular-clear insulin- short duration, can be given iv, available in U-100 or U500

Route- sc, or IV, inhaled (EXUBERA) no longer available

Purpose- prandial insulin

Timing of injections: works 30-40 min before you eat

61

NPH (HUMULIN)-

INTERMEDIATE ACTING- cloudy

protamine suspension (mixed with regular) . Protamine retards absorbtion of RHI-> delays onset of action- makes insulin last longer

Onset 1-2 hrs

*********Peak- 8-10 hrs- give 2x a day

Purpose: basal insulin with some prandial properties at peak. Typically dosed BID.

Appearance- cloudy

Mixing- Dose at breakfast and at bedtime, clear before cloudy, roll it in your hands to agitate it.

62

Insulin Detmir (LEVIMIR)

INTERMEDIATE ACTING

dose dependant pharmacodynamics- tweener- between NPH and Lantus.

Once or 2 x a day.

Basal insulin- Cant mix with other insulins.

Peak 18 hrs

Purpose basal insulin

63

Insulin Glargine

LONG DURATION insulin

long acting, no peak, dosed at bedtime, 24 hr coverage,

clear like reg insulin

Purpose basal insulin (Peakless)

Inject only SC

DO NOT mix with other insulins

64

What are Sulfonylureas and how do they work

Antidiabetic 1st oral agents

A1c reduction-large 1-2%- cost effective

MOA-stimulates beta islet cells to release insulin

Therapeutic use- type 2 diabetics only- bc type 1 diabetics don’t have islet cells

65

Glypizide
glyburide
glimepiride

2nd generation sulfonylureas

ADE-hypoglycemia. Caution is severe sulfa allergy

Do not take if you have a sulfa allergy

Anything that works through insulin pathway can cause hypoglycemia

Pregnancy-avoid- teratogenic in animals- Avoid if breastfeeding as well

66

Nateglinide (STARLIX)

Repaglinide (Prandin)

MOA-stimulates beta islet cells to release insulin

Dosing: prior to each meal

Adverse effects: hypoglycemia, wt gain

67

Metformin (Glucophage) MOA

is a BIguanides- approved in 1994

MOA Decreases production of glucose in the liver and enhances utilization by the muscle

DOES NOT CAUSE HYPOGLYCEMIA

A1C reduction- 1-2%

Place in therapy- now considered drug of choice for initial use. Also has a role in pre-diabetes

***Diabetes Prevention Program: all pre-diabetics received either intensive lifestyle changes or metformin therapy or placebo

68


PIOGLITAZONE (ACTOS),

ROSIGLITAZONE (AVANDIA)

–activating the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma)

PPAR-gamma improves insulin resistance

So Glitazones decrease insulin resistance

ADE
Fluid retention
Raises plasma lipid levels
Liver toxicity

69

ACARBOSE (PRECOSE)

miglitol (Glyset)

Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitors-

MOA complex carbs have to be reduced to monosaccharides ay alpha-glucosidase (enzyme located in the brush border of sm. Intestine). These drugs inhibit this enzyme.

A1C reduction ½ %

PK: minimally absorbed- stays in GI tract- if not absorbed, it goes to bowel and bacteria breaks it down

ADE: substancial GI flatulence, cramps, abd distention, borborygmi, diarrhea, rare liver toxicity.

Hypoglycemia- you need glu tablets, sandwich wont work fast and will delay the absorbtion

GI tract issues minimized after time

70


EXENATIDE (BYETTA) AND SITAGLIPTAN (Januvia)

Incretin mimetic agents-

GLP-1is a peptide hormone that’s released from the cells of the GI tract in response to carb containing meal. GLP-1 slows gastric emptying, stimulates beta islet cells to release insulin, inhibits glucogon release, and increases satiety.

Exenatide is a synthetic GLP-1 and sitgliptan blocks the enzyme responsible for breaking down endogenous GLP-1


A1C reduction 0.8%

Adverse effects GI (nausea, vomiting) especially with exenatide- weight neutral

71

(topical) Epinephrine: Prototype for sympathomimetics

Adrenergic Agonist Agent

Receptors: alpha 1-2 and beta 1-2

Uses: delays absorption of local anesthetics through alpha 1, control superficial bleeding, elevates BP, decreases nasal congestion, dilates eyes, AV Block, Cardiac Arrest, Anaphalactic shock.

Kinetics: IV , Topical

ADE-
HTN
Necrosis
Tachycardia
Dysrhythmias
angina
MI
increase in Blood sugar

72

Isoproterenol

Adrenergic Agonist Agent

1st selective beta agonist

Receptors: Stimulates Beta 1-2 ( <3 , lung, uterus)

Uses: CHF, AV Block, COPD, Asthma, Preterm Labor

73

Dopamine

Adrenergic Agonist Agent

Catacholamine, Concentration Dependent on receptors

Receptors: Alpha 1 (high dose)
Beta 1 (Moderate Dose)
Dopamine (Low Dose)

Uses:
dilates kidney vasculature at low dose
Code for MI

74

Dobutamine

Adrenergic Agonist Agent

Receptors: Beta 1 Only

Uses: Coding, heart failure, bradycardia

ADE: HTN, Tachycardia, arrhythmia, MI, Angina

75

Terbutaline

Adrenergic Agonist Agent

Noncatacholamine

Receptors: Beta 2 Selective only

Uses: Asthma- Pre mature labor

ADE: Tremors, Increased Blood Glucose

76


Isoproterenol
Epinepherine
Dopamine
Dobutamine
Ephedrine
Terbutaline

Adrenergic Agonist Agents

77

Bethanechol
Pilocarpine
Acetylcholine
Muscarine

Cholinergic Agonists

78

Physostigmine
Neostigmine
Edophonium

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor

MOA: Increases contraction of skeletal muscle by stimulation of Nic M Receptors

Primary Use: Myasthenia gravis

ADR: Muscarinic Man

If Toxic Give Atropine

Reverses anticholinergic toxicity

79

Ethacrynic Acid

Non sulfa loop diuretic

80

CLONIDINE -

Central Acting Alpha 2 Agonists

works by stimulation of alpha 2 in CNS, whoas NE Stimulation w/o depleting Receptor

Remember rebound HTN

81

Terbutaline
Isoproterenol
Epinepherine

Beta 2 stimulation ,

causes bronchodilation, Relaxation of Smooth Muscle (preterm labor), skeletal muscle contraction, increase blood glucose,

82

Pramipexole and Robinirole

dopamine agonists.

83

levodopa carbidopa

parkinsons medication

carbidopa has no therapeutic effects alone. This means that you can give somebody a boat load of carbidopa and it will not do anything.

It inhibits dopa-decarboxylase in the periphery which allows more of the inactive form of levodopa to cross through the blood brain barrier where it is then metabolized into dopa, thus increasing the dopamine levels in the brain.

84

Benztropine

central acting anticholinergic drug.

Relieves symptoms of Parkinson's disease by blocking muscarinic receptors in the brain, thus restoring balance. (brings normal level of Acetylcholine down to match depleted level of dopamine)

85

Acetylcholinesterase

It metabolizes Acetylcholine

86

Tacrine
Donepezil
Rivastigmine
Galantamine

Cholinesterase inhibitor

DO NOT GIVE WITH: Anticholinergic drugs,
Antidepressants, Tylenol PM

Therapeutic uses: Alzheimers

87

Memantine

Alzheimers Medication

Modulates Glutamate or Glutamic Acid which is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain

88

Vancomycin

Antibiotic

89

Neurontin

GABA agonist

90

Levetiracetam

Keppra

Anticonvulsant

91

Feosol

Iron

92

Sertraline

Zoloft

Antidepressant

93

Allopurinol

Gout med

94

Dexmedetomidine

Precidex

Alpha 2 agonist

Sedative

95

Buspirone

Anxiety med

96

Bupropion

Antidepressant

97

Citalopram

SSRI

98

Diflucan

Yeast medicine

99

Fioricet

Headache medicine

100

Guaifenesin

Expectorant