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Flashcards in Melt Down Deck (30):
1

Menace reflex

reflex blinking that occurs in response to the rapid approach of an object. Cortical damage, particularly cerebral lesions, can cause loss of menace reflex.

2

What is normal dog temperature?

38-39

3

What is a normal dog pulse rate?

80-110

4

What is a normal respiratory rate/ minute?

20-30

5

What are the four ways heat dissipates?

convection, conduction, radiation, evaporation

6

Pyrogenic hyperthermia

Hyperthermia in response to noninfectious sytemic inflammation (e.g. pancreatitis, trauma, immune mediated disease) or infectious agents that produce pyrogens (e.g. interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor, viruses, bacteria)

7

Pyrogens

Interleukin-1, TNF, viruses, bacteria- act on the brain to raise the set-point to a higher temperature range, producing fever (rarely severe enough to put veterinary patients at risk)

8

Non-pyrogenic hyperthermia

Hyperthermia occuring when heat dissipating mechanisms cannot compensate adequately for heat-producing mechanisms resulting in an increase in body temperature above the set-point and the potential for the development of heatstroke

9

When your body responds by increasing catecholamine secretion, what is your body trying to do?

Increase body temperature

10

When your body increases thyroid hormone production, what is your body trying to do?

Increase body temperature

11

Where does most heat exchange take place when a dog pants?

Nasal turbinates

12

At environmental temperatures above 32C, the primary mechanism of heat loss in dogs is:

Evaporation

13

What is the cardiovascular response to hyperthermia?

Cutaneous vasodilation and increase in cardiac output

14

The acid-base status in heatstroke is usually characterized as

Respiratory alkalosis and metabolic acidosis

15

What mechanisms cause generalized cellular necrosis in cases of thermal injury?

Denaturation of proteins, inactivation of enzyme systems, destruction of cell membranes lipids, alteration of mitrochondrial function

16

Why is it not recommended to immerse a dog in ice water if they are hyperthermic?

It would cause peripheral vasoconstriction and reduce heat loss from the body core

17

What is a way in the hospital that you might cool the patient?

COLD IV fluids

18

What is ranitidine?

A H2 blocker

19

What is maropitant?

Anti-emetic

20

What is pantoprazole?

A proton pump inhibitor

21

What is a petechial haemorrhage?

Capillary bleed

22

Ecchymosis

Subcutaneous extravasation of blood larger than 1 cm

23

Low urine specific gravity

Renal failure and administration of intravenous fluids

24

What could give a positive dipstick reading for the presence of haem molecule?

Haematuria, haemoglobinuria, myoglobinuria

25

Isotonic, crystaloid fluids example

0.9% Sodium chloride- will not cause dangerous fluid shift. Isotonic to blood plasma.

26

Why do you give plasma?

Try and replace clotting factors

27

If you are giving fluids and patient is not producing urine, what does this mean (eventually)? How can you tell?

Acute renal failure. Ultrasound.

28

What system in dogs is unlikely to hold up first?

GI system i.e. haemorrhagic diarrhoea (whereas a cat will present with lung problems)

29

What does the petechiae tell us about the patient?

DIC

30

What happens to the brain with a systolic BP less than 60?

BBB breaks down. Restore BP with fluids.