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Flashcards in membranes and transport Deck (14):

physiological role of membranes

protection for the cells, shape, separates intracellular from extracellular, transports material between organelles and between intercellular and extracellular, compartments, recognition sites, anchoring sites, binding and maintaining electric potentials



glycerol backbone + phosphate + 2 FA
type of phospholipid



sphingosine backbone + long chain FA + phosphorylcholine

type of phospholipid

eg: sphingomyelin which is commonly found in the outer membrane, makes up myelin sheath around neuron



sphingosine backbone with carbohydrate/sugar residues attached (in outer leaflet)



embedded in lipid bilayer, attached in hydrophobic tails

they help buffer temperature changes so the membrane stays optimally fluid

too much cholesterol cause spur cell anemia in RBC bc they become too rigid to pass through capillaries without rupturing


phosphatidylserine (PS)

a sphingomyelin normally found on the inner membrane is moved to the outer membrane signally cell death/apoptosis in dying or damaged cells


integral membrane proteins

embedded in lipid bilayer
can be polytopic transmembrane proteins span the membrane multiple times to interact with both internal and external environments ie: transporters, ion channels, receptors


peripheral proteins

loosely bound to membrane by attachment to lipids or proteins


lipid-anchored proteins

tethered to membranes via covalent attachment to a lipid



carbohydrate shell on the surface of membranes (remember carbs have to attach to proteins or lipids and have to be facing extracellular space). glucocalyx protects membrane, prevents degradation, and helps identify cells as foreign or diseased


definition of glycosylated

attached to carb molecules


Antigen and antibody for each blood group

antigen tags the blood cells as to what type they are. antibodies are produced by the body to check and make sure that any improper blood cells are destroyed.

O blood: H antigen, with anti-A and anti-B antibodies
A blood: A antigen, with anti-B antibodies
B blood: B antigen, with anti-A antibodies
AB blood: A and B antigen, with no antibodies


Rh factors also known as D antigen

Rh+ express D antigen
Rh- lack D antigen


erythroblastosis fetalis

mom Rh-, baby is Rh+. first baby the mom's body develops antibodies to fight the Rh+ (D antigen) so the second Rh+ baby mama's antibodies will attack fetus leading to premature