Menstruation Flashcards Preview

OB > Menstruation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Menstruation Deck (35):
1

Endometrial cycle

Proliferative (pre ovulatory)
Secretory (post ovulatory)
Menstruation

2

Average cycle duration

25-35 days, average of 28 days

3

Number of oocytes at birth

2 million

4

Number of oocytes at puberty

400,000

5

Number of oocytes depleted per month until age

1000

6

Number of follicles released during female reproductive life

400

7

Generates mature germ cells in response to hormonal control signals

Target organ

8

Produces hormones that send signals to the hypothalamus, pituitary, and uterus

Endocrine gland

9

1-14th day (ovarian cycle)

Follicular Phase

10

Gonadotropin-independent recruitment of primordial follicles from their resting pool and growth to antral stage

Follicular Phase

11

Recruitment of primordial follicles in follicular phase is controlled by:

Transforming growth factors (TGF-B):

-Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF 9)
-Bone morphogenic protein 15 (BMP-15)

12

Hormone needed for further development of antral follicles

FSH

13

_ rise leading to follicle development

FSH

14

Phase where estrogen levels rise parallel to the growth of the dominant follicle and increase number of granulosa cells

Follicular phase

15

Effect of increased FSH receptors in granulosa cells of the dominant follicle

Increase ability of cytochrome P-450 aromatase to convert androstenedione to estradiol

16

Hormone receptors that are present only on the theca cells

LH receptors

17

Receptors only found on the granulose

FSH receptors

18

Hormone that stimulates thecal cells to produce androgens

LH

19

LH surge

Ovulation

20

LH surge

Due to increasing estrogen production by preovulatory follicles
34-36 hrs prior to ovulation
Peaks 10-12 hrs before ovulation
Meiosis resumes and ovulation occurs

21

14-28th day (ovarian cycle)

Luteal phase/ post ovulatory

22

Corpus luteum formation

Luteinization (luteal phase)

23

Develops from the remains of Graafian follicle

Maintained by pulses of LH from the anterior pituitary

Corpus luteum

24

Phase wherein progesterone increases while estrogen decreases

Luteal phase/post ovulatory

25

Corpus luteum regresses _ days after ovulation in the absence of pregnancy

9-11 days

26

Highly responsive to estrogen and progesterone levels

Cyclical shedding and regrowth of the glands, stroma, and blood vessels

Endometrium

27

2 layers of endometrium

Stratum functionale

Stratum basale

28

Endometrial regrowth due to estradiol produced during follicular phase of ovarian cycle

What phase

Proliferative phase/ pre ovulatory

29

<2mm thick
Glands: Narrow tubular straight with mitotic figures
Blood vessels: Numerous, no leukocytes or extravascular blood present

Early proliferative endometrium

30

Endometrium thickens
Glandular hyperplasia, increased stromal ground substance
Glands: Widely spread
Loose stroma: prominent

Late proliferative endometrium

31

Endometrial changes are due to progesterone effects

Early secretory endometrium

32

First histological evidence of ovulation

Presence of subnuclear vacuoles (Day 17)

33

Production of IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)

Presence of neutrophil infiltrates

Menstruation

34

Causes increased cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and decreased 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH)

Progesterone

35

Ovarian cycle

Follicular (pre ovulatory)
Ovulation
Luteal (post ovulatory)